MESSIAH - PART 8
THE ROLE OF MAN
(Last updated 9/11/01)
We present this section on the role of man in bringing tikkun, as supplement to our
study on Messiah's work. As we will see man has not only a continual role in the
restoration of the physical realm, but also the heavenly realms.
Rabbi Pinchas Winston, in a recent Parsha commentary, presents the following
understanding of how Creation, including the mineral, vegetable, animal and human levels
of existence, were all affected by the sin of Adam and Eve, and in need of tikkun:
One of the principle effects of Adam's and Chava's interaction with the snake was
that they became the recipient's of an kind of indelible spiritual impurity called
"zuhama" (Shabbos 146a). Spiritual impurity is a tricky concept to begin with,
since it is of the spiritual realm, though it will eventually manifest itself physically.
... Now, the first thing to know is that creation consists of four levels of
existence, which, in Hebrew, are: Domaim, Tzomayach, Chai, and, Medabehr -- Silent,
Vegetation, Animal, and, Speaking. The middle two of the list are self-explanatory,
whereas the first one refers to the non-animate (mineral) world, as "Medabehr"
refers to the level of man.
... That's what zuhama did, does. It was a spiritual infiltration of the negative
spiritual forces ("Chitzonios" or "K'lipos") that had been embodied in
the First Snake, and which colored the way we related to the spiritual world, and, by
extension, the physical world. It was a partial deadening of our spiritual senses, and
therefore, ability to relate to G-d. Thus, zuhama is the true source of sin.
... the "infection" of zuhama was only on the first three levels of
existence. However, this still affects man, since he, too, possesses all FOUR aspects of
creation within him, either directly in him or through interaction with them (such as
eating vegetables or animals). And, it certainly affects the animals world, since that is
what they are made of and what sustains them. 1
As Rabbi Winston points out later in this same teaching (see below), the sacrificial
system offers a limited effectiveness. The coming of Messiah will provide a permanent
The "New Testament" states that Yeshua came to rectify this entry of sin
caused by Adam:
Romans 5:11-17 - And not only so, but we are also boasting in God,
through our Lord Yeshua Messiah, through whom now we did receive the reconciliation;
because of this, even as through one man the sin did enter into the world, and through the
sin the death; and thus to all men the death did pass through, for that all did sin; for
till law sin was in the world: and sin is not reckoned when there is not law; but the
death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of
Adam's transgression, who is a type of him who is coming. But, not as the offence so also
is the free gift; for if by the offence of the one the many did die, much more did the
grace of God, and the free gift in grace of the one man Yeshua Messiah, abound to the
many; and not as through one who did sin is the free gift, for the judgment indeed is of
one to condemnation, but the gift is of many offences to a declaration of `Righteous,' for
if by the offence of the one the death did reign through the one, much more those, who the
abundance of the grace and of the free gift of the righteousness are receiving, in life
shall reign through the one -- Yeshua Messiah.
THE ROLE OF MAN -
THE SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM
Rabbi Winston offers the following insight into the sacrificial system with regard to
the tikkun it provided for creation and man:
Thus, says Kabbalah, when an animal is burned on the altar, tremendous
"tikun" occurs. The wood that is burned is the spiritual representative of the
Vegetation World, while the salt, which is mandatory for all animal sacrifices, is the
"Domaim" stand-in. The animal, of course, is the "Chai," and, when all
three are consumed on the altar, then, the zuhama itself in creation is weakened, along
the way to its eventual and complete obliteration in the time of Moshiach.
... Thus, a second reason for sacrifices is that they come to "sweeten"
(i.e., rectify and elevate) the judgment and change it from the "Trait of
Judgment" to that of Mercy. For, Domaim and Tzomayach -- the essence of physical
creation -- are the result of the "Strong Judgment" and physicality. That is,
the physical world is a "projection" of the reality of the distancing of the
lower spiritual worlds from the Light of G-d, which is why they are SO physical, and, hide
the hand of G-d SO well. Hence, when they -- the wood, the salt, and the animal -- are
offered to G-d they became "sweetened" and "fragranced" (i.e.,
pleasing to G-d) when they are consumed by the fire on the altar, for, they ascend
upwards. And, this does not simply mean that particular animal, wood, and salt, but, the
entire categories of Chai, Tzomayach, and Domaim for all of creation. 2
The Zohar shows how the earthly sacrifices also effected a tikkun of the heavenly
realm. The following passage comments on a particular sacrifice at the time of the
dedication of the Tabernacle (showing how it unified the name of God), linking this to the
meaning behind the Yom Kippur sacrifice.
The passage concludes by associating the Holy One blessed be He (Tipheret),
directly with the "Ineffable Name" of YHWH:
Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 219b - Similarly do we
read: Take thee a bull calf for a sin offering (Lev. IX, 2), an ordinance
meant personally for Aaron to atone for the sin of the golden calf which he brought upon
Israel. So here Moses was bidden Take unto thee, that is, take for thy
benefit and use the incense (q'toreth), which is potent to bind together (qatar), to
illumine and to remove the evil taint. The Daleth is linked to the He, the He to the
Vau, the Vau ascends and is adorned with the He, the He, is illumined by the Yod, and the
whole ascends, reaching out to the En-sof (Infinite, Illimitable), so that there results
one organic whole, interrelated under one principle, the most exalted of all. From thence
and upward the whole is adorned as with a crown by the ineffableness of the En-sof; and
the Divine Name in its mysteriousness is illumined and is adorned on all sides, and the
worlds are all wrapt in joy, the lamps radiate their lights, and sustenance and blessing
pour down on all the worlds. All this follows the hidden virtue of the incense, without
which the evil taint would not be removed. All thus depends on it. Observe that the
offering of the incense used to precede all other services, and hence its recital should
be a prelude to our service of hymns and praises, as these latter do not ascend, nor is
the required readjustment and unity achieved until the evil taint is removed.
So Scripture says: And he shall make atonement for the holy place... and
because of their transgressions, even all their sins (Lev. XVI, 16), first
atonement for the holy place and then for their transgressions.
We, too, thus have first to remove the evil taint and purge the holy place, and then
engage in song and hymn and prayer,as already said. Happy are Israel in this world
and in the world to come, inasmuch as they know how to effect adjustment on high and
below; to achieve adjustment from the lower world upwards until the whole is bound
together in the most sublime union. The process of adjustment performed in the lower world
is by means of the impressed letters of the Ineffable Name by which the Holy One, blessed
be He, is named.
The following section illustrates the process by which the sacrifices and prayers
effect tikkun in the heavenly realms. The smoke of the sacrifice is said to reach the
highest levels (Arikh Anpin), which blesses the "other lamps"
below it (Ze'er Anpin), and then the world (Malkut-Shekinah).
The process actually begins by uniting the lower waters to the upper
waters, symbolic of unifying Malkut-Shekinah (the bride) with Tipheret (the groom).
Those involved in this process (i.e., the priests) are in the role of the Tzaddik
(symbolic of Yesod) which, as discussed earlier in this study,
makes the connection between Tipheret and Malkut:
Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 244a - It is written:
The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning, and the second lamb shalt thou offer
at even (Num. XXVIII, 4). Prayers have been ordained to correspond to the daily
offerings. Through the impulse from below there is a stirring above, and through the
impulse from above there is a stirring higher up still, until the impulse reaches the
place where the lamp is to be lit and it is lit. Thus by the impulse of the smoke (of the
sacrifice) from below, the lamp is kindled above, and when this is kindled all the other
lamps are kindled and all the worlds are blessed from it. Thus the impulse of the
sacrifice is the mainstay of the world and the blessing of all worlds.
When the smoke commences to rise, the holy forms in charge of the world derive
satisfaction, and are disposed thereby to stir the grades above them; and so the impulse
rises until the King desires to associate with the Matron. Through the yearning of the
lower world the lower waters flow forth to meet the upper waters, for the upper waters do
not flow save from the impulse of the desire from below. Thus mutual desire is kindled and
the lower waters flow to meet the upper waters, and worlds are blest, and all lamps are
kindled, and upper and lower are endowed with blessings.
Observe that the function of the priests and Levites is to unite the Left with the
Right. Said R. Hizkiah: That is so, but I have been told that one rouses the Left
and the other the Right, because the union of male and female is only brought about by
Left and Right, as it says: O that his left hand were under my head, and his right
hand should embrace me (S. S. II, 6). Then male and female are united, and there is
mutual desire and worlds are blessed and upper and lower rejoice. Hence we see that the
sacrifice is the support and the mainstay of the world, and the joy of upper and
lower. Said R. Jose: You are certainly right, and I had heard this before but
had forgotten it. This, too, I have learnt, that nowadays prayer takes the place of
sacrifice, and a man should fittingly pronounce the praise of his Master, and if not, his
prayer is no prayer. The most perfect form of praising God is to unify the Holy Name in
the fitting manner, for through this upper and lower are set in motion, and blessings flow
to all worlds.
In the following section of the Zohar, the "heave offering" is explained to
represent the "lifting up" of the bride to the groom (Malkut to Tipheret). All
"thoughts and desires" are said to properly be focused on the "Heavenly
King," which is Tipheret, (i.e., Yeshua in the heavenlies). Thus the Zohar promotes
the idea of sacrifice and prayer being directed to God through "the Son":
Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 133b -
"They shall take Me a heave offering." Here we have displayed an inclusive
union of the above with the below, for it does not say "They shall take a heave
offering", but "They shall take Me a heave offering", which denotes
a fusion of the upper with the lower spheres. [Tr. note: i.e. Tifereth with Malkuth.] "On
the part of everyone whose heart is willing ye should take my heave offering." The
words "on the part of" seem at first sight to be superfluous, but in reality
they contain a deep lesson for the masters of the esoteric lore. Blessed are the righteous
who have learnt how to centre all their thoughts and desires on the Heavenly King, and
whose aspirations are directed, not towards the vain and foolish toys of this world and
its lusts, but to attaching themselves wholeheartedly to the world above in order to draw
down the favour of the Lord Himself from heaven to earth.
THE ROLE OF MAN -
THE FEASTS OF THE LORD
As we have commented earlier in this study, there are many aspects of God that seem
separate and dissimilar to us, due to our relationship with time. Beyond the restriction
of time however, these distinctions vanish. This seeming disparateness is also true of the
Feasts of the Lord. 3
Examining the major feasts of; Rosh haShanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Pesakh and Shavuot,
we find that our participation in these is part of restoring harmony to the Godhead,
particularly that of uniting Tipheret and Malkut:
Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 119a - In every
ritual action, let your effort be directed toward uniting the Holy One, Blessed be He, and
his Shekinah through all camps above and below.
This final time of complete harmony is symbolized by the weekly Shabbat,
(which we comment on below). As we saw earlier in our study, the Zohar indicates that the
Feasts all point to the same thing -- the eternal Shabbat, which is associated with
Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 135b - The
six [Feast] Days are but a preparation for her [the great Sabbath]. As
they are united above in "One", so she is unified below in the mystery of
"one", to correspond to them above. The Holy One, blessed be He, who is One
above, does not take His seat upon the Throne of Glory, until She has entered within the
mystery of the One in accordance with His very essence of Oneness, to be the One in One.
This, as we have said, is the significance of the words: "The Lord is One, and His
Name is One." It is the mystery of the Sabbath, which is united with the mystery of
the One so that it may be the organ of this Oneness.
Rosh haShana is different that the other Feasts, as it is not tied to a specific event
in Jewish history. Rather, it is the "anniversary" of the creation of Adam and
Eve, and the beginning of their realization of mankind's role in God's world. It is called
Yom Harat Olam - the Birthday of the World.
Rosh haShana (literally, "Head of the Year"), is the Hebrew "New
Year" according to the civil calendar. It is also the New year for
Sabbatical years, Jubilee years, planting trees, and for tithing vegetables. Rosh haShana is
the beginning of what is called, Yamin Noraim, the "Days of Awe," or
the Aseret Yemai Teshuvah, the "Ten Days of Repentance." This is a time
of judgment, said to be caused by predominance of the Sefirah of Gevurah-Judgement. Rosh
haShana is thus also called Yom haDin, the Day of Judgment.
Because judgment is "awakened" above, it is imperative that the people seek
repentance (associated with the Sephirah of Binah) in order to restore balance, by
"awakening" the Sephirah of Hesed-Mercy. (Recall that Hesed and Gevurah are
opposite each other in the Kabbalistic Tree of Life.) Rosh haShana is also called Yom Teruah - the day of sounding the Shofar. The shofar blast is
a call to repentance, and, as with prayer, "causes things to happen in the
heavenlies." It is therefore to be taken quite seriously, especially by the person
blowing the horn. (See the Zohar section just below.)
The shofar (which is symbolic of Binah), plays a representative role here. It is blown
one hundred times during the Rosh haShana service. This is reflective of the ten Sephirot
having aspects of all ten within each one. It was for this reason that Solomon placed ten
menorahs in the Temple. (This is a subject we will deal with later.) The blowing of the
Shofar symbolizes the prevalence of Hesed-Mercy over Gevurah-Judgment. These 100 blasts
are divided into four groups:
- Tekiah, a single unbroken note
- Shevarim, three short individual blasts rising in tone
- Teruah, nine short staccato notes
Following these three groups, there comes:
- Tekiah Gedolah - "big tekiah" - is sounded. This is one long
A custom at Rosh haShana is Tashlikh (literally: "casting
off"), where people gather around a body of flowing water empty their pockets or
thrown stones into the water, symbolically casting off their sins.
This practice is inspired by the words of the Prophet Micah:
Micah 7:18-20 - Who, O God, is like You? You forgive sins and
overlook transgressions. For the survivors of Your people; He does not retain His anger
forever, for He loves kindness; He will return and show us mercy, and overcome our sins,
And You will cast into the depths of the sea all their sins; You will show kindness to
Jacob and mercy to Abraham, As You did promise to our fathers of old.
The above passage is associated with a Kabbalistic principle called the Thirteen
Attributes of Mercy, (which are "hidden" in the text of the above verses
from Micah). Note that there are a total of thirteen shofar blasts in either the first
three groups of the blowing of the shofar (1-3-9), or the last three groups (3-9-1), as
The Shofar is also said to connect the Akeidah, the binding of Isaac, with Mount Sinai.
Jewish teachings says that the shofar sounded at Sinai (by God) was the left horn of the
ram (supplied by God), offered by Abraham at the Akeidah. The right horn of that ram will
be the shofar that will herald the coming of Messiah.4
The following section of the Zohar offers insight into the relationship between the
Shofar, judgment and Isaac (who is associated with the Sephirah of Gevurah-Judgment). We
present this with minimal commentary in bold type.
Soncino Zohar, Vayikra, Section 3, Page 18a-b - Once
as R. Eleazar and R. Abba were sitting together, the former said: I observe that my
father will not listen to any man reading the prayers on New Year and the Day of Atonement
unless he has watched him three days previously to purify him; for R. Simeon used to say,
"Through the prayer of the man whom I have purified the world receives
atonement." He was still more particular not to accept the shofar [Tr. note: The
ram's horn blown on New Year.] blowing of any man who was not well acquainted with the
rules of the shofar and their inner significance. On this day (of New Year) Isaac is
crowned, and becomes the head of the patriarchs.
The Sephirah of Gevurah-Judgment is represented by Isaac. As
judgment is dominant on Rosh haShana, Isaac is said to be "head of the
Patriarchs" at that moment.
Said R. Abba: We read the portion of Isaac (Gen. XXI, XXII) on
this day, because on this day he was bound below and was also united to the One above. R.
Eleazar said: On this day Isaac crowned Abraham with glory, as it says, "And
the Lord exalted (nissah, lit. proved) Abraham" (Gen. XXII, 1), because the Right
Hand was completed and perfected.
Abraham, linked to the Sephirah of Hesed-Mercy, was brought into
balance ("completed and perfected"), by being brought toward the side of
Gevurah-Judgment via Isaac.
... R. Abba said: Had not the judgement of Isaac been passed
through the place where Jacob abides and annulled there, it would have gone ill with the
world. But when it entered into the place of Jacob, and Jacob laid hold on it, then the
fire sank and the heat was cooled. It is as if a man in a great passion seizes his weapons
and goes out to kill someone, but a certain wise man meets him at the door and detains
him, and while they are arguing with one another his anger cools down, and instead of
going out to kill, he only goes out to reprove.
Isaac, on the side of judgment, was in turn brought into balance
via Jacob, who (as discussed earlier), is representative of Tipheret.
Who was it on whom the man vented his passion? Surely the man who
stood at the door! So the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Israel: "My sons, fear
not, for I stand at the door; only brace yourselves up on this day and give Me strength.
The Holy One, blessed be He, is Tipheret, who says He
is "standing at the door." This language is similar to that found in
Revelation chapter 3, where Yeshua speaks of repentance in the face of judgment.
... And through what? Through the shofar. For if the sound of the
shofar is properly produced and listened to with devotion, then it mounts aloft and the
patriarchs crown themselves with it and stand in the tent of Jacob. Hence strict attention
should be paid to the sound of the shofar. Every sound of the shofar ascends to a
different firmament, all the denizens of which give place to the sound, saying, "And
the Lord uttereth his voice before his army" (Joel II, 11). And that voice remains in
the firmament until another voice comes and joins it, and then they both ascend together
to another firmament. And when all the voices from below are collected and ascend to the
highest firmament where the Holy King is, they stand before the Holy King and then the
thrones are set and another throne, that of Jacob, is firmly established. In the Book of
Rab Hamnuna the Elder we find: Prayer and the sound of the shofar which are produced by a
virtuous man with his heart and soul mount above, and the accusers above are thrust away
before it and cannot face it. Happy are the righteous who know how to be truly devout
before their Master and to establish the world on this day with the sound of the shofar;
hence it is written, "Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound (of the
shofar)" (Ps. LXXXIX, 15). On this day the congregation must look out for a man
without blame who knows the ways of the King and how to honour Him, that he may pray for
them and transmit the sound of the shofar to all worlds with concentration of thought,
with wisdom, and with devotion, that through him chastisement may be removed from the
world. Alas for those whose minister is not fitting, for through him their sins will be
called to mind.
The above section speaks of a man "without blame," who
represents his people. In the final paragraph (below), this man is said to bring atonement
... But if he is truly virtuous, then the people are justified
through him, and punishment is removed from them through him. Said R. Eleazar:
For this reason the priest and Levite were examined as to their character, and if
they were not found satisfactory they were not allowed to minister. And so, too, with the
members of the Sanhedrin before they were allowed to judge.
(The Zohar offers additional commentary on the Shofar, which we
present in Appendix II.)
One of the themes of Yom Kippur is that of "afflicting the soul," a means of
achieving reverence and repentance (associated with Binah). Yom Kippur is closely
associated with the events on Mount Sinai. Jewish history says that it is on Yom Kippur
that Moses received the second set of tablets (after smashing the first set).
The rituals of Yom Kippur are a reenactment of how Moses prepared himself for Sinai.
For instance, only the High Priest was permitted to approach God, having to remove his
Another interesting custom is associated with the Shema which is recited as such:
Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is one.
Blessed be His glorious name whose kingdom is forever and ever.
Throughout the year, the second line of the Shema is spoken in a whisper, as the name
of God is not yet unified and His kingdom not yet established. At Yom Kippur however, this
response is said aloud, indicative of this representing the time when these events will
occur. (See the previous section regarding the names of YHWH and
ELOHIM being united within the Shema.)
(The relationship of the "Days of Awe" between Rosh haShana and Yom Kippur
will be discussed in our Revelation text study.)
The Holiday of Yom Kippur concludes with a final shofar blast. This is the "last
trumpet" referred to in the "New Testament," and is associated with the
ingathering of the elect of Israel from the "four corners of the earth." This is
the time of the great wedding between Tipheret and Shekinah-Malkut, the latter of which
includes His elect.
Sukkot (the feast of booths/tabernacles) is the last of the "fall feasts" and
takes place over seven days in Israel and eight days outside the land. At the end of the
feast, the holiday of Simhat Torah ("Joy of Torah") takes place, where
the last portion of the year's Torah cycle is read, along with the first portion of the
subsequent year's cycle.
Sukkot offers a multitude of insights. For instance:
- The eight days, and specifically the eighth day, are symbolic of eternity. For
example, the time cycle for the earth being 6,000 years, is followed by the 1,000 year
Shabbat/Kingdom, which is followed by the Olam Haba - the "eighth day" -
eternity with a new heaven and earth.
- Both the last and first Torah portions are read. This is significant, as it symbolizes
the concept that "the beginning is the end, and the end is the beginning."
(i.e., Keter is in Malkut, and Malkut is in Keter.) See our previous studies on time
and reference to the "Mobius strip."
- The building of the Sukkah (a temporary outdoor dwelling) has many meanings. One that is
less known regards the making of a thatched roof for the dwelling, and its association
with prophecy. However, rather than "looking up and out" through the roof, it is
taught that one goes "above and beyond" the dimension in which we exist (to
Binah), in order to "look back down" through the roof at the realm of Ze'er
- The waving of the four species of vegetation is a deeply mystical practice. In one hand
is held a palm branch, three myrtle branches and two willow branches. The palm branch, a
phallic symbol is associated with the Sephirah of Yesod. (See previous
studies on Yesod for more on this imagery.) The three myrtle branches represent Hesed,
Gevurah and Tipheret. The two willows are Netzah and Hod. In the other hand is held an
etrog (citron), symbolizing the (feminine) Sephirah of Malkut. All of these are waved in
six directions, (east, west, north, south, up and down), representing the six directions
of space, or Ze'er Anpin. (See previous studies on this
subject matter), and symbolizing a union between Ze'er Anpin and Malkut.
- Another interesting concept is that of welcoming one of the Patriarchs as an honored
guest, on each of the seven days of the feast. As seen earlier in our study, each of the
seven lower Sephirot is associated with one of these Biblical persons. Beginning with
Abraham on the first day (representing Hesed-Mercy), through David on the 7th day,
Part of a Sukkot prayer, involving these seven Patriarchs, found in the Siddur goes as
"Be seated, be seated, exalted guests, be seated, be seated, holy guests, be
seated, be seated, guests of faithfulness, be seated in the shade of the Holy One, Blessed
be He. Worthy is our portion, worthy is the portion of Israel, as it is written: For
Hashem's portion is His people, Jacob the lot of His heritage. For the sake of the
unification of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and His Presence, to unify the Name Yud-Hey
with Vav-Hey, in perfect unity through Him Who is hidden and inscrutable -- I pray in the
name of all Israel." 5
The theme of the "eight day" as associated with the rectification of the
heavenly realm (thereby reconnecting Arikh Anpin and Ze'er Anpin), had
its "earthly image" depicted in the dedication and events surrounding both the
Tabernacle and First Temple.
In the Torah, we see a process of seven days, leading up to the establishment of the
Leviticus 8:33-36 - And ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle of
the congregation in seven days, until the days of your consecration be at an end: for
seven days shall he consecrate you. As he hath done this day, so the LORD hath commanded
to do, to make an atonement for you. Therefore shall ye abide at the door of the
tabernacle of the congregation day and night seven days, and keep the charge of the LORD,
that ye die not: for so I am commanded. So Aaron and his sons did all things which the
LORD commanded by the hand of Moses.
Upon the completion of this "seven days" comes the day of completion, the
"eighth day." The eighth day parallels the eighth Sephirah of Binah (starting
from our vantage point at Malkut and ascending). This parallels the "seven thousand
years" of earthly existence which is followed by the descent of heavenly New
Jerusalem, in the "eighth" day.
Leviticus 9:1 - And it came to pass on the eighth day, that Moses called
Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel.
Turning to the dedication of the First Temple (Solomon's Temple), we see a number of
similarities, including the seven days of preparation leading to the eighth day:
2 Chronicles 7:8-9 - Also at the same time Solomon kept the feast
seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great congregation, from the entering in of
Hamath unto the river of Egypt. And in the eighth day they made a solemn assembly: for
they kept the dedication of the altar seven days, and the feast seven days.
As mentioned earlier, Pesakh (Passover) is a time of deliverance, through the defeat of
the evil realm (which have their way in the world due to the separation of Malkut and
Tipheret). The Exodus from Egypt also represents the deliverance of the Shekinah from
exile (and its association with the evil realm), and the beginning of her reunion with
Tipheret. (Consequently, Pesakh must precede Yom Kippur, the latter being representative
of the end of this process of reunion.)
Pesakh and Yom Kippur have a mystical connection, having to do with the offering of an
animal as a substitution that would "take power away from the evil realm," for a
period of time. According to the Zohar, the tenth day of the month is significant, linking
the lamb of Passover with the goat of Yom Kippur:
Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 39b -
ON THE TENTH DAY OF THIS MONTH THEY SHALL TAKE TO THEM A LAMB. According to R. Abba, the
tenth day was chosen because on this day the Jubilee illumines the Moon (i.e. Binah
communicates light to Malkuth); for of the Jubilee it is written: On the tenth day
of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement (Lev. XXIII, 27). They
shall take a lamb. Why a lamb? Because it symbolized the power of the lowest
crown, which the Holy One broke, the crown to which all the other
inferior crowns cling, forming the unholy triad signified by the phrase,
lambs, menservants, and womenservants, sent by Jacob to Esau, as a sop, as it
were, to the evil powers which the latter represented. The Holy One said: Do ye
perform this act of slaughtering the Passover lamb, and I myself will nullify its power
above. Do ye let it pass through fire (v. 8) here below, and I shall lead the impure
principality which it represents through the fiery Stream. And why was the lamb to
be tied up on the tenth day and slaughtered on the fourteenth? Because, according to R.
Abba, the four days corresponded to the four hundred years that Israel was subjected to
the power of Egypt.
Kabbalistically, the Passover Seder (festive meal), is a ritual designed to reunite the
Shekinah (Malkut) with Tipheret.
For example, during the meal:
- People lean to the left, the side of freedom. The "left" is the side of Binah,
which is associated with freedom.
- The three matzoh represent Tipheret, Malkut and Yesod, with Malkut (the
"female" Sephirah), in the middle, broken in half to symbolize her being
"divided" between the two "males," until she is finally united with
- The Afikomen is hidden, again, symbolizing Binah, the hidden source of freedom.
- The four cups of wine consumed during the meal are linked to the Sephirot of Chokhmah
(the father), Binah (the mother), Tipheret (the son/groom), and Malkut (the bride). The
stages of their consumption represent the process of unifying Tipheret and Malkut.
- The Seder ends with a temporary reunion of Tipheret and Malkut, and a degree of freedom
from the evil realm.
Shavuot is one of the three "pilgrimage" feasts, along with Pesakh and
Sukkot. Unlike the other two, which are each seven-day events, Shavuot lasts but one day.
The other two feasts have a sense of leading up to the "eighth day" which
denotes eternity (beyond this physical realm, i.e., Binah). Shavuot however, does not have
the same seven-day period. This is explained as Shavuot being the day of complete unity,
whereas Pesakh and Sukkot anticipate that unity.
Shavuot is associated with the revelation of the Torah at Mount Sinai, and in the
"New Testament" with the giving of the Ruach haKodesh (Acts 2). In both of these
cases Shavuot gives the sense of "being there" in one powerful, concise day of
unity with God. Also in common between the two is that the "source" of the Torah
and of the Ruach haKodesh is the same, that being Tipheret.
Shavuot is preceded by a period of seven weeks, (beginning after Pesakh), known as the
counting of the Omer. These days correspond to
the cycle of years culminating in the Jubilee or Yovel year. (See previous study on the
Shemita and Yovel Year.) It was during the seven weeks following the Exodus that
Israel prepared themselves for receiving the Torah and Mount Sinai. Thus, the period of
the Omer is one of spiritual preparation.
Shavuot and Yom Kippur share a mystical connection regarding the Jubilee Year, as the
celebration of that event began on Yom Kippur with the blowing of trumpets throughout the
There is a tradition of reciting the following kabbalistic prayer before the counting
of the Omer begins. Compare the language and intent of this prayer to the one for Sukkot
seen above. Aside from this similarity, is also that of the "waving" of the
branches at Sukkot, and the "wave offering" of Shavuot. Both represent the
unification of Tipheret and Malkut.
"For the sake of the unification of the Holy One, Blessed be He, and His
presence, in fear and love to unify the name Yod-Hey with Vav-Hey in perfect unity, in the
counting of the Omer, as is written in the Torah: You are to count from the morrow of the
rest day, from the day you brought the Omer-offering that is waved -- they are to be seven
complete weeks -- until the morrow of the seventh week you are to count fifty days, and
then offer a new meal-offering to hashem. May the pleasantless of my Lord, our God, be
upon us -- may He establish our handiwork for us; our handiwork, may He establish." 6
These 50 days of the Omer are also related to something called the "Fifty
Gates of Understanding." This mystical concept is based on the idea that each of
the Sephirot has its own aspect as well as the aspects of the others within it. (The term
"gates" is another designation for the Sephirot as discussed earlier.)
(Click here for additional information on the "Fifty
Gates of Understanding.")
Thus, when looking at all ten Sephirot, each one has within it, an aspect of itself and
the other nine. Thus, there would be 100 total "combinations" or
"gates" to consider. (As mentioned, Solomon had ten Menorah in His Temple for
this reason. The Menorah has an aspect of "ten" in its design. This will be
shown in a later study.)
However, when considering only the "lower" seven Sephirot that are connected
to our present existence, there are a total of 49 aspects or "gates" to
consider. (Each of the seven has itself and the other six within it.) These 49 gates lead
to the eighth Sephirah (gate) of Binah-Understanding. Hence, the time of counting the Omer
is associated with the "Fifty Gates of Understanding."
The following text from the Zohar shows how the Sephirah of Chokhmah-Wisdom has all the
other Sephirot "within it." The first Sephirah to emanate from Chokhah is
Binah-Understanding. Within this Sephirah are the "Fifty Gates":
Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 175b - When
Wisdom began to cause the shaping of Crowns, [Tr. note: * i.e. Sefiroth.] with which Crown
did it commence? With that which is called Understanding (Binah), for in
Understanding all is contained; and therefore fifty gates are opened in its name, and thus
it is found that all the letters and all the crowns are engraved in Wisdom. Therefore it
is written: Thou hast made them all in Wisdom (Ps. CIV, 24). It is written:
Who hath measured the water in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with the
span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in
scales, and the hills in a balance? (Isa. XL, 12). The water here
symbolizes Understanding. R. Eleazar referred it to Grace,
whereupon R. Simeon said to him: The two views are equivalent. Heaven
symbolizes Beauty (Tifereth), and dust refers to Power
(Geburah). Mountains refers to the other crowns which are called
Mountains of pure balsam, and hills alludes to somewhat lower
As the fifty gates run from Malkut to Binah, is should not be surprising to find some
interesting connections between the fifty gates and the Sephirot from Malkut to Binah.
- The mystical interpretation of Proverbs 32:23, "Her husband is known in the
gates," is that the husband (Tipheret) of the woman (Malkut) may be known by
means of these gates (Sephirot).
- God posed fifty queries into the nature of
Creation to Job, upon which Job finds repentance (Binah).
- King David bought the site of the threshing floor
(associated with Malkut) from the Jebusites, for a peculiar sum of money: "David
bought the threshing-floor ... for fifty pieces of silver." (II Samuel 24:24)
Here the Temple (representative of Binah) would be built.
In the study of Gemmatria (Hebrew numerology),
the "higher wisdom" of the Godhead is associated with the letter
"yud" (with a value of 10, relating to the entirety of the Godhead), and
the "lower wisdom" with the letter "nun" (with a value of 50,
related to the 50 gates associated with the lower seven leading to Binah). The letter "nun"
is also closely associated with the Messiah, as "Heir to the
THE MYSTERY OF THE TWO CALENDARS
One of the more interesting ideas surrounding the feasts is how they are divided into
the "spring" and "fall." As such, there are two "calendars,"
in Judaism, one highlighting a "religious year," beginning/ending in the spring,
and the other a "civil year," beginning/ending in the fall.
Notable is that when we regard Ezekiel's Temple (the Millennial Temple), it is the
religious calendar being followed. Also consider that in Ezekiel's Temple (among the many
other differences to the previous Temples/Tabernacle), is that the feast of Yom Kippur is
no longer carried out as in times past. Rather, the adornment of the priests and their
actions serving in Ezekiel's Temple, show a state of "perpetual Yom Kippur."
From what we have discussed in our studies, we also see a parallel between the two sets
of feasts. The spring feasts begin with a sacrifice for sin at Passover. The fall feasts
begin with the sacrifice for salvation at Yom Kippur. As we have shown there is a mystical
connection between these two feasts, regarding; the animals involved, the effect on the
evil realm, and the date of the 10th of the month being significant.
Also, the spring feasts end with a period of time (the Omer) leading up to a
"final day" (Shavuot) representative of the "eighth day" when all
becomes united once again. In the fall, we have a similar concept with the last feast of
Sukkot, having the Days leading up to Simhat Torah. As mentioned however, Shavuot
does not have quite the same "time element" leading to it as Shavuot. The Omer
count of Shavuot is purely one of gaining spiritual insight, whereas the seven days of
Sukkot are physically (as well as spiritually) preparing for the eighth.
What can we deduce from all this?
The spring feasts are representative of what is going on "outside of time" in
the heavenly realm, as effected by Yesod-Tipheret. The fall feasts, being time-related,
relate to events on this earth, as effected by Yesod-Malkut. This corresponds to the
heavenly and earthly aspects of Yeshua's work as Divine Tzaddik and Messiah.
His first appearance, dealing with sin and effecting tikkun in the heavenlies, is
linked to the spring feasts. (i.e., the timing of His death through the appearance of the
Ruach haKodesh [signifying the heavenly tikkun had been accomplished] took place in the
spring, from Passover to Shavuot.) This tikkun of the heavenlies must take place before
the reuniting of Tipheret and Malkut (son and bride), and subsequent tikkun to the earth,
as discussed earlier in this study.
Yeshua's concluding actions, dealing with salvation, judgment and re-unification of
Tipheret and Malkut, is linked to the fall feasts. The time from Rosh haShana to Yom
Kippur is the period of judgment on the earth, Yom Kippur (the last trump) being linked to
the restoration of Israel to her Messiah, and Sukkot being the initiation of Olam Haba
- the world to come - the "eighth day" of eternity.
Shabbat is the culmination of what the other annual Feasts point to and
is associated with multiple themes including; the Kingdom, the coming of Messiah, the
wedding between Tipheret and the Shekinah-Malkut. Many of these have already been
discussed in previous sections of this study.
The Zohar speaks of the Sabbath (both the weekly one we now have as well
as the coming Supernal Sabbath), as a time when the blessings of God flow abundantly:
Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 136b-138b - For upon
this day (Sabbath) the heavens are crowned and ascend in the power of the Holy Name more
than on any other day. "His handiwork" is the supernal Dew which streams forth
from all the hidden regions; it is "the work of His hands", and His
self-fulfilment wherein He completes and perfects Himself on this day more than upon any
other. This dew "streams down" from the Head of the King, with an abundance of
blessing, the "firmament" here signifying the stream issuing from the Cistern,
the "River which went out of Eden", which flows earthwards, as the stream of the
Supernal Dew which gleams and flashes from all sides. This "firmament" draws it
downward upon a current of love and desire, in order that it may water the field of bliss
and joy at the entrance of the Sabbath
This section of the Zohar later goes on to speak of the "Sun"
(i.e., Tipheret, the "Son" as well as the "Sun," as discussed
earlier), and the Moon (the Shekinah) being united, with the latter then compared to the
"upper Mother" (Binah) with mention of the "fifty gates" (of
... When all are thus completed and vivified by the Sun, then the
Moon is crowned in the likeness of the supernal perfect Mother in fifty gates.
(The above reference from the Zohar comes from a larger section of that work, which we present in Appendix III.)
One of the more mystical songs associated with Shabbat is called Lekhah Dodi (meaning,
"Come My Beloved"). This song transforms the Sabbath into a heavenly wedding
between Tipheret and Malkut (who, by the way, are the two "lovers" in the
Biblical book of Song of Songs [Song of Solomon]).
The language of Lekhah Dodi is drawn from several sources including Isaiah,
Psalms and Song of Songs. The song (in italics below), is full of hidden references to the
Sephirot, which we will offer commentary on:
Come my Beloved, to meet the Bride, Let us welcome the Sabbath
The greeting is from Song of Songs 7:12. The Beloved is Tipheret, the Bride and
Sabbath are both Shekinah-Malkut.
"Keep" and "Remember" in one divine word. Thus, the unified God
to us made heard.
God is one, His name is one. As is His name, His splendor, and His praise.
The combined commands to "keep" and "remember" from
Deuteronomy 5:12 and Exodus 20:8 are considered distinct, with "keep" (shamor)
associated with Malkut, and "remember" (zakhor) with Yesod. The voice
"heard" (at Sinai) is Tipheret. Zechariah 14:9, speaking of a future unification
Toward the Sabbath, let us now go. For she is the source of blessing,
Appointed since the earliest time, the beginning. Last in creation but first in thought.
The Sabbath is Malkut (with a close tie to Yesod), drawing blessing from Binah.
Malkut was the last Sephirah emanated, but was appointed by and conceived in the Sephirah
of Chokhmah-Wisdom ("thought").
Shrine of the king, the royal city. Rise up from your ruins,
Too long have you dwelled in the valley of tears. To you He will act mercifully with
The king is Tipheret, from whom she has for too long been separated. The "valley
of tears" is from Psalm 84:7. Tipheret (also called "Compassion") will
invoke Hesed-Mercy upon her.
Arise and shake off the dust. Dress yourself with your clothes of splendor, My
With the help of the son of Jesse, the Bethlehemite King. Come near to my soul, redeem it!
The dust is from the exile apart from Tipheret (Isaiah 52:2). The garments of
splendor are those of Tipheret. The son of Jesse is David, but the reference is Messianic
who is from the house of David. Here, the Shekinah is associated with the redemption of
Awake, Awake! For your light has come, Arise my light
Wake, wake -- sing out with song. The glory of God upon you is displayed.
The calls to awaken are from Isaiah 51:17 and 52:1. The "light" is
from Tipheret, who is also called God's glory (Isaiah 60:1). The singing is from the
heavenly realm, as seen in the book of Revelation.
Be not ashamed, be not distressed. Why are you bowed, and why do you yearn?
In you shall the poor children of My people be comforted. The city upon its ashes will be
The command to not be ashamed is from Isaiah 45:15 and Jeremiah 22:22). The
query about yearning comes from Psalm 42:12. The reference about being comforted is from
Isaiah 14:32. It is by the Shekinah are the people restored. Earthly Jerusalem will be
rebuilt (Jeremiah 30:18).
They who destroyed you will themselves be destroyed.Your foes will be routed.
Your God will then rejoice in you, As a bridegroom rejoices in his bride.
The reference to the "foes" is timeless, though can be applied
directly to those who come against Jerusalem in the last days. (See also Jeremiah 30:16
and Isaiah 49:19.) God is associated with Tipheret, each compared to rejoicing with the
bride (Isaiah 62:5).
Spread out to the right and the left, Revering God.
With the help of a descendant of Peretz, We will rejoice and celebrate.
The right and left is an allusion to the Sephirot of Hesed-Mercy and
Din-Judgment (Isaiah 54:3). The "God" who is revered is Tipheret. The descendant
of Peretz is the Messiah who takes part in this process (Ruth 4:18; Psalm 118:24).
Come, in peace the crown of her spouse. Come in joy and radiance,
To the faithful of the chosen people. Come, O bride! Come, O bride!
The "crown of the spouse" is Malkut-Shekinah (Proverbs 12:4). The
faithful are those who trust in God/Messiah and His Torah (Revelation 12:17; 14:12;
Come, my Beloved to meet the Bride.
Let us welcome the Sabbath.
The "beloved" is Tipheret who unites with Shekinah-Malkut. We welcome
the Shekinah into our midst when we welcome the Shabbat.
THE ROLE OF MAN -
PRAYER, REPENTANCE AND WORKS
Beyond the restoration (also referred to as "sanctification"), of our own
selves and creation, man is also involved in the tikkun of heavenly matters. In one sense,
man acts as a type of messiah (anointed one) in God's plan. For example, King Cyrus was
called by this name for his actions on behalf of God (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1).
The idea of man's participation in the process of the reunification of the Name of God,
is found in most prayer books. The following prayer is said in advance of a mitzvah
(commandment), to focus the person on its ultimate purpose:
[I hereby do this mitzvah] for the sake of the unification of The Holy One, Blessed
is He, and His Divine Presence, in fear and in love, to unify the Name of yud-h'eh with
vav h'eh in completion, in the name of the entire Jewish people.
These steps of tikkun effect Arikh Anpin, (the upper Sephirot) and are
following by God bringing repentance and healing (coming from Binah which is in Arikh
Anpin). Note that God even says that proper observance of Torah, will enhance the coming
of His Kingdom:
2 Chronicles 7:14-18 - If my people, which are called by my name,
shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked
ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal
their land. Now mine eyes shall be open, and mine ears attend unto the prayer that is made
in this place. For now have I chosen and sanctified this house, that my name may be there
for ever: and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually. And as for thee, if
thou wilt walk before me, as David thy father walked, and do according to all that I have
commanded thee, and shalt observe my statutes and my judgments; Then will I establish the
throne of thy kingdom, according as I have covenanted with David thy father, saying, There
shall not fail thee a man to be ruler in Israel.
This process of prayer/tikkun thus follows the path of the Tree of Life:
- first humbling themselves (as associated with Malkut)
- followed by prayer (as a Tzaddik is mediator, linking the earthy and heavenly realms)
- seeking His face (Tipheret)
- turning from their wicked ways (repentance, coming from Binah)
Contemporary Kabbalist Rabbi Pinchas Winston, states this in a similar fashion,
referring to Torah-learning (seeking God's face), good deeds (acts of humility) and
prayer, all making up the "mirror of the Torah" than enables is to "turn
from wicked ways" in order to serve God, and (according to 2 Chronicles above)
receive forgiveness and blessing.
Says Rabbi Winston:
Conscious life, for a Jew, can be divided up into three basic activities:
Torah-learning, good deeds, and prayer. Aside from the actual technical and practical
knowledge that Torah-learning imparts, Torah is a spiritual mirror to reveal our inner
potential; to reflect back to us our godliness, so that we can live inspired spiritual
Winston's comment on the Torah being our mirror is reminiscent of another famous Rabbi,
who also compared following Torah, humility and charity to a "mirror" that we
are to look into:
James 1:21:27 - Therefore lay aside all filthiness and overflow of
wickedness, and receive with meekness the implanted word, which is able to save your
souls. But be doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves. For
if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man observing his natural
face in a mirror; for he observes himself, goes away, and immediately forgets
what kind of man he was. But he who looks into the perfect law of
liberty and continues in it, and is not a forgetful hearer but a doer of the
work, this one will be blessed in what he does. If anyone among you thinks he is
religious, and does not bridle his tongue but deceives his own heart, this one's religion
is useless. Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is this: to
visit orphans and widows in their trouble, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world.
"Prayer" is often misrepresented in the world we live in as being for the
purpose of "getting something from God." Some hold a more accurate view of
prayer being a way for us to "draw closer to God." This is true, but more
accurately, the purpose of prayer, as with the sacrificial system, commandments and
performance of good deeds, is toward unification of the Godhead and bringing us closer to
the time of ultimate tikkun.
As with anything to do with connecting the heavenly and earthly realms, prayer must be
performed in an appropriate manner.
Pinchas Winston states:
If a person prayers with reverence, patience, concentration, and enthusiasm, then,
clearly, he will draw the Presence of G-d into creation. However, if a person lacks
reverence when he prays, perhaps suggested by the way he prays or how is dressed, then,
the Presence of G-d is pushed away. If a person seems impatient while praying -- before,
during, or after -- then what message does he send to creation -- positive or negative?
Or, what if he makes little or no effort to concentrate while praying? Does he convince
us, himself, or Heaven that he believes in what he is doing, or, cares for that matter?
And, certainly, a lack of enthusiasm to pray does not invite the Divine Presence to
descend into our mundane world. 9
In the "New Testament," Yeshua's brother Jacob (incorrectly called
"James" in Christian Bibles), promotes the concept of prayer as covering both
physical and spiritual areas:
James 5:13-20 - Is anyone among you suffering? Let him pray. Is
anyone cheerful? Let him sing psalms. Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the
elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of
the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise him up. And
if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. Confess your trespasses to one another, and
pray for one another, that you may be healed. The effective, fervent prayer of a righteous
man avails much. Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed earnestly that it
would not rain; and it did not rain on the land for three years and six months. And he
prayed again, and the heaven gave rain, and the earth produced its fruit. Brethren, if
anyone among you wanders from the truth, and someone turns him back, let him know that he
who turns a sinner from the error of his way will save a soul from death and cover a
multitude of sins.
Both James and Paul also taught that the goal of the tzaddik is to seek to bring about
tikkun, even in unpleasant circumstances:
James 1:2-6 - My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into
various trials, 3knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience. But let
patience have its perfect work, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking nothing. If
any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without
reproach, and it will be given to him. But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for he
who doubts is like a wave of the sea driven and tossed by the wind. For let not that man
suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord; he is a double-minded man, unstable
in all his ways.
Romans 5:3-4 - And not only that, but we also glory in
tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance; and perseverance, character;
and character, hope.
This idea of constantly glorifying God, even in the difficult portions of life, stems
from the extended verses of the Shema, which read:
Deuteronomy 6:5 - And you shall love G-d your G-d with all of your
hearts, with all of your life, and, with all of your possession.
As taught by Rabbi Pinchas Winston, regarding the Shema:
This is the mitzvah of Yichud: To constantly unify everything in creation with Him,
for, "He fills the entire world with His Glory" (Yeshayahu 6:3), until it is
completely apparent below that "G-d alone will have been exalted" (Tehillim
148:13), and this is the rectification that will occur in the future, when all the
spiritual impurity will disappear, and all of creation will become holy to G-d and unified
with Him. 10
It can thus be said, that the goal of the Tenakh is to direct man to the process of
tikkun, both of the heavenly and earthly realms. As such, when asked what the greatest
commandment was, Yeshua replied as follows:
Matthew 22:37-40 - Yeshua said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord
thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the
first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour
as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.
THE ROLE OF MAN -
This section concerning the role of man would be incomplete without addressing the
importance of Torah study, especially at the deeper levels. Without an understanding of
what God requires of us, and why He requires it, we are left to the whims of our own
hearts, which as Scripture tells us, is desperately wicked.
Putting it another way:
Proverbs 14:12 - There is a way that seems right to a man, But its
end is the way of death.
Proverbs 10:29 - The way of the LORD [Torah] is strength
to the upright: but destruction shall be to the workers of iniquity.
There is much written in the body of Kabbalistic works regarding the importance of
Torah study. For the purpose of concluding this section of our study, we will simple say
that a sign of the approach of Messiah will be the study and understanding of the deeper
levels of the Torah.
This enlightened will come from the level of Binah-Understanding:
Zohar 124b - Then the Scholars will understand, because they are
from the side of Binah (eighth sefirah), which is the Tree of Life. Of them it says, 'The
Scholars will emanate light like the light of the sky ...' (Daniel 12:3) ... with this
book of yours, the Book of the Zohar, which is from the light of Binah, which is called
repentance ... In the future Israel will taste from the Tree of Life, which is this Book
of the Zohar, they will leave exile in mercy, and "Hashem alone will lead them, and
they will have no foreign god" (Devarim 32:12).
Vayikra, The Supreme Sacrifice, Rabbi Pinchas Winston (torah.org)
3. For more detail concerning the concepts in this section, see chapter 9 of, The
Mystic Quest - An Introduction to Jewish Mysticism, David S. Ariel, Jason Aronson,
4. Pirkel d'R' Eliezer, as cited in the Stone Edition Chumash, commentary
to Exodus 19:13.
5. From The Complete Artscroll Siddur, Menorah Publications, ltd.,
Brooklyn, NY, 1990, p.721.
6. ibid, p. 283.
7. The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters: The
Letter Nun, from The Inner Dimension, Gal Einai Institute. http://www.inner.org/HEBLETER/nun.htm
8. Parshas VaEschanan -
Nachamu: Pleading In Comfort, Rabbi Pinchas Winston (torah.org)
Emor - Eighth Parshah and Counting, Rabbi Pinchas Winston (torah.org)
10. Parshas VaEschanan -
Nachamu: Pleading In Comfort, Rabbi Pinchas Winston (torah.org)