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Revelation 19:10
Last update: March 13, 2007

The purpose of this study on verse 10, is to give insight into the relationship between the concept of "prophecy," the characteristics of messiah, and ideas concerning the tzaddik (righteous person) including his/her role with "Yichud Hashem," the unification of the Name of God and advancing of the Kingdom.

10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, “See that you do not do that! I am your fellow servant, and of your brethren who have the testimony of Yeshua. Worship God! For the testimony of Yeshua is the spirit of prophecy.”

At the literal level, this verse makes a connection between these concepts:

  1. Worshipping God only
  2. The "testimony" of Yeshua (i.e., the Messiah)
  3. The command to "worship God"
  4. The "spirit of prophecy"

Central to this verse is the idea of "worshipping God." What is the purpose of worshipping God? A chapter title to a classic kabbalistic text, Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul) states:

"The Purpose of Worshipping God is to Bring About the Coupling of Ze'er Anpin and Nukva" 1

Exactly what is meant by this? Ze'er Anpin and Nukva are called partzufim -- "personifications" of the Sefirot. As shown in previous studies, the above sentence is kabbalistic language for uniting the "spiritual groom and bride" which in itself represents the "unification of the Name of God" as spoken of in Zechariah 14:9. This unification is the ultimate message of the Bible and the goal to which all of the commandments direct us. It is also a continuation of the idea presented earlier in chapter 19, as discussed in the previous study.

Note that this unification was expressed in the verses immediately leading up to this one:

Revelation 19:7-9 - Let us be glad and rejoice and give Him glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready.” And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. Then he said to me, “Write: ‘Blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb!’” And he said to me, “These are the true sayings of God.”

An understanding of the relationship between the Sefirot and prophecy is critical to interpreting Revelation 19:10. As shown in earlier studies, Ze'er Anpin (the six Sefirot from Hesed to Yesod) is the "groom" representing the letter "vav" in the four-letter Name of God (y-h-V-h). Nukva (the Sefirah Malkut) is the "bride" representing the last letter "hey" in the Name (y-h-v-H).

We will review and elaborate on the concepts underlying this "testimony" and "spirit of prophecy" including:

  • the Image of God
  • the Sefirot
  • the Temple
  • Moses
  • Joseph & Messiah ben Joseph
  • The Soul of Messiah


The Bible has several references to "the image of God," including these:

Genesis 1:27 - So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.

Genesis 9:6 - Whoever sheds man’s blood, By man his blood shall be shed; For in the image of God He made man.

Colossians 4:4 - Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:

2 Corinthians 4:4 - In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Messiah, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.

God has no physical form, therefore the "image" to which man was formed alludes to something spiritual. Further, God the Creator (i.e., "before" Genesis 1:1, called "Eyn Sof") is beyond our comprehension in any way. All we can strive to understand about "God" is that which God chooses to reveal within Creation. As this image is "within Creation," it is within our capabilities (with the help of God) to understand this and thus obey the command to be "conformed" to it.

As discussed in earlier studies, these "emanations" of God within creation (that we can to varying degrees understand) number ten and are called "Sefirot." A comprehensive teaching on this subject is beyond the scope of this study. There are a number of reliable web sites and books that offer this as well as further information in our own previous studies. 2

These ten Sefirot, prior to their being "revealed" by God within existence, are also known as Adam Kadmon. This is the "image" to which man was created. By creating the Sefirot, God gave us the means to relate to how He rules the world. By understanding the Sefirot we are able to become "conformed to the image of God." Within this deep understanding of the Sefirot is what we call "prophecy."

Physical man's body reflects this spiritual image. The human body is thus designed with the goal of worshipping God in mind. The body is the vessel which enables the soul to perform the commandments, resulting in the worship of God, rectification of man's soul and at times attainment of prophecy.

As stated in Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul):

Corporeal man was created in character and image, meaning that the body parts were not created at random, rather, for a single purpose, which is to worship the Creator. The Creator wanted to make mankind to be able to comprehend Him. His parts and their connecting tissue were to be in the character of spiritual man, man of emanation. When man fulfills the commandments of the Torah with the intention to worship his Creator and he does it with his thought and speech, and acting through the body parts, he brings about a "repair" to spiritual man, subjugates himself to the Creator and becomes a part of the holy chariot which is composed of the tzaddikim.

... corporeal man and all his parts is a reflection of spiritual man. 3

As mentioned in a previous study, the performance of every mitzvah may also be expressed in terms of unification of the Name of God:

Furthermore, one of the special paragraphs said in advance of a mitzvah, to focus us on the purpose of the mitzvah (found in most prayer books) is: [I hereby do this mitzvah] for the sake of the unification of The Holy One, Blessed is He, and His Divine Presence, in fear and in love, to unify the Name of yud-h'eh with vav h'eh in completion, in the name of the entire Jewish people. 4


Stated in simple terms, prior to any of the "four worlds" coming into existence, were the Sefirot. Everything that comes to be has its root within the Sefirot, as they exist in every "World," from our physical world (Asiyah) to the spiritual words of "Formation" (Yetzirah) and "Creation" (Beriah), all the way to the World of Atzilut ("nearness," i.e., to Eyn Sof).

Prophecy is therefore understood as a person's ability to comprehend that which is rooted in the Sefirot:

Prophecy is a knowledge and an attainment that God, in His Glory, gives he prophets. But doesn't this necessarily contradict what we previously said regarding the fact that we can never attain knowledge of God's ways? No, for as we have mentioned, we cannot grasp the whys and wherefores of the Infinite One (Eyn Sof), but as to limited will, namely the Sefirot, we can grasp something, for the Sefirot exist even in the world of making (Asiyah). We have defined this limited will through the Sefirot, which are the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He ... In addition, we mentioned that the Sefirot represent the actual essence of reality, and everything that will ever happen is included and rooted in them.

... No creation -- not even the loftiest of the creations -- has direct access to the Creator, and any access at all must come through the Sefirot, through God's will.

When a person attains a great level of spirituality, the creator, Blessed be He, allows that person to gain some measure of insight into the way He rules the world. This is what we call prophecy. Prophecy is ranked by the level the prophet achieves in comprehending the Sefirot. When a prophet gains a certain level of comprehension of God, in other words when he attains the Sefirot, which are God's guiding ways, he will also necessarily gain an understanding of the details and the results, the product of the Sefirot. 5

In his book Meditation and the Bible, Aryeh Kaplan sites a prayer based upon the Sefirot, used to attain the prophetic state:

Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh, Crown Me (Keter)
Yah, give me wisdom (Chokmah)
Elohim Chaim, grant me understanding (Binah)
El, with the right hand of His Love, make me great (Chesed)
Elohim, with the Terror of His judgment, protect me (Gevurah)
YHVH, with His mercy, grant me Beauty (Tiferet)
YHVH Tzavaot, watch me Forever (Netzach)
Elohim Tzvaot, grant me beatitude from his Splendor (Hod)
El Chai, make His covenant my Foundation (Yesod)
Adonay, open my lips and my mouth will speak of Your praise (Malkut)

Returning to the partzufim, the events within the 6,000 years of human history are said to be tied to Ze'er Anpin and Nukvah, i.e., the "lower seven" Sefirot (also called the "middot"):

The central focus in much of the Kabbalah is on the Patzufim of Zeir Anpin and Nukvah, and their interrelationship. This is because it is primarily between these two Partzufim that the world in which we live in is governed. 7

All events in this world specifically rooted in Ze'er Anpin and Nukvah. Therefore, in the patzufim Ze'er Anpin and Nukva lies the root of all the world's creatures, and in them is the essence of the Guiding Power of the world in which we live. Everything that happens to the individual human is rooted in Ze'er Anpin and therefore we must try to understand the different aspects of the partzuf, so that we can understand the ways of the Creator. 8

... all reality during the six thousand years of the world's existence is rooted in the partzuf Ze'er Anpin. 9

... the Ze'er Anpin and the Nukva are the root of the world we live in. Therefore the behavior of mankind will find the same conditions as the Ze'er Anpin and the Nukva. 10


The Temple was/is considered central to worship of God. All of its associated functions are designed toward bringing the above mentioned unification between Nukveh (below) and Ze'er Anpin Above. 11

The third (millennial) Temple is symbolic of the unification of Nukveh and Ze'er Anpin. As shown by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto in his text Secrets of the Future Temple, the third Temple is a combination of a new earthly Temple and the heavenly Temple upon which all the Tabernacle and previous Temples were patterned.

For the heavenly Temple will not be uprooted from its place. Rather, it will extend until it reaches the lower world, and then around it will be built a physical structure as fitting in the material world., and the two structures will be joined and become one and never again separate. 12

That which "separated" the earthly and heavenly Temples, is also that which "separated" Nukveh (the Hey) and Ze'er Anpin (the Vav). This idea will be further discussed in our comments to Revelation 21:1. This unification within the third Temple results in the uninterrupted flow of "blessing" from above to below. This is specifically symbolized by the gate of the Holy of Holies, as discussed in our study of Revelation 7:1a (See section at the end on "Gemmatria.")


As shown in our earlier stories, the design of the Temple just like that of man's physical body is patterned after the Sefirot. The man who most emulated the Sefirot was Moses. The Tenakh presents Moses as a prophet whose "level of prophecy" was in a class of its own.

The difference between the level of prophecy of Moses versus all other prophets is explained in various ways in Hebraic literature. God spoke to Moses "directly," whereas to the other prophets He communicated through dreams and visions.

Prophecy is envisioned as seeing Divine truth through a lens. Moses’s prophetic vision is said to have been as if “through a transparent lens,” while that of all the other prophets is said to have been as if “through a non-transparent lens,” i.e. either a cloudy pane or a mirror. This simply indicates that the inferior prophecy of the other prophets was transmitted through the Sefirah of malchut; they experienced Divinity as it has been funneled into creation (specifically, the three worlds of Beriah, Yetzirah, and Asiyah). Moses, in contrast, experienced Divinity directly (i.e., as it is manifest in the world of Atzilut before being channeled through malchut). 13

Thus we see that Moses' level of prophecy was that of uniting Zeir Anpin and Nukvah:

... the flow of divine power stimulated by the uniting of Ze'ir and Nuqba (sic) in the course of contemplation constitutes the source of the inspiration that the successful adept attains ...  Moses looked through a glass that shined, the kabbalists associated Moses' prophecy with the divine masculine ... Uniting the partzufim of Ze'ir and Nuqba contemplatively infuses an individual with divine inspiration and enables him to speak with words of prophecy14


Although Moses was the greatest of prophets, we can look to Joseph as an example of one attaining this "spirit of prophecy" as related to messiah, as the concept of "Messiah ben Joseph" is directly associated with characteristics of the latter.

Interestingly, we find a direct reference to our subject matter in the language of Targum Onkelos:

Genesis 41:38 - And Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find (someone) like this, a man in whom is the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord?" 15

Targum Onkelos is the Aramaic rendering of the Torah used in synagogues at the time of Yeshua. In it, Pharaoh is seen as recognizing "the spirit of prophecy" in the young Hebrew prisoner brought before him.

There are a number of interesting concepts surrounding Joseph that we will examine:

  • His age
  • His dreams
  • His fall and "descent into Egypt"
  • His elevation to being "second only to Pharaoh" and being given the signet ring."
  • His maintaining his (sexual) purity
  • His brothers not recognizing him

Joseph's Age

Joseph's story begins in a mystical fashion, with the Torah explaining the "history of Jacob" in terms of the Joseph's adventure.

Genesis 37:1-2a - Now Jacob dwelt in the land where his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan. This is the history of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old ...

The first thing the Torah mentions on any topic is always important. In this case, it is Joseph's age. The fact that the number seventeen is mentioned should not be overlooked as it is a number of messianic significance in terms of the tzaddik - righteous person who unites the physical realm (represented by the number "7") with the heavenly realm (represented by the number "10").

This unification is a role of Messiah ben Yosef:

“the unification of Yesod and Malchut” -- This is one of the principal missions of Mashiach ben Yosef:to unify heaven and earth, to unify the two meshichim, which means the tree of Yosef with the tree of Judah during the awakening from below with the joining of Jerusalem above with Jerusalem below by a rebuilt Jerusalem.  Then it will be like a city that is united together (Ps.  122:3). 16

The relationship Messiah ben Yosef has to the earthly and heavenly realms has to do with his parents and how they are seen as connected to the earthly and heavenly worlds:

Mashiach ben Yosef is the miraculous power who will assist every act done  when the awakening starts from below, in a natural manner, because he comes from the earth. Mashiach ben David, however, will come from Heaven as revealed by the different aspects of Rachel and Leah, and as known regarding the footsteps of the Mashiach and the revealed end.  Mashiach ben Yosef himself is a composite of two aspects: on the one hand, he is Yosef the son of Rachel of the land; on the other hand, he is Yosef son of Jacob from Heaven. 17

Others who are associated with this number are:

  • Betzalel, the numerical value of whose name is 153, which is the sum of the numbers between 1 and 17 (the "triangle" of 17).
  • Moses, whom the Torah says that his mother looked upon him as a baby and said that he as "tov" (good), the numerical value of which is 17.
  • Yeshua, who directed his disciples to recast their nets to the "right side" of their boats, with the following consequence:

John 21:11a - Simon Peter went up and dragged the net to land, full of large fish, one hundred and fifty-three;

Joseph's Dreams

Having given us one hint of Joseph being a "hidden tzaddik" the Torah gives us another - his receiving prophetic revelation through dreams.

Dreams are the medium that cross the realm between the physical world (Asiyah) and the "lower" spiritual realm (Yetzirah), centered around the Sefirah of Yesod (foundation) which as shown in previous studies is linked to Joseph and the idea of the tzaddik.

(Psalm  127 [126:1]) “the captivity of Zion” -- In the same sentence we find: “we were like dreamers.” All of the aspects found in this Psalm beginning: “when God returns the captivity of Zion, ” etc., were said about the mission of Mashiach ben Yosef, as explained in the Midrash (Tanchuma, end of the parsha Vayegash”). 18

Joseph's "Descent"

As mentioned in earlier studies, one of the fundamental principles of the tzaddik is that of his having to "fall" in order to rectify a greater number of people and the lower levels of creation.

The Tzaddik is called pure, but on some occasion some impurity may be found in him so that he may join the impure to elevate them to a state of purity. 19

One who gives freely and generously. By lifting up his brethren, he himself is raised. 20

... for the intensity of the descent is determined by the potential for ascent -- "the bigger they are, the harder they fall." The inverse is also true: According to how low the nation has fallen, the ascent that follows is that much greater. 21

The "tzaddik descending" is often not an obvious thing to recognize, nonetheless as Joseph himself told his brothers:

Genesis 45:8 - So now it was not you who sent me here, but God; and He has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.

(Also see section below on "Joseph not being recognized.")

Joseph being "second only to Pharaoh"

In the Torah, Joseph is given the power of Pharaoh by Pharaoh himself:

Genesis 41:39-44 - Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Inasmuch as God has shown you all this, there is no one as discerning and wise as you. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my people shall be ruled according to your word; only in regard to the throne will I be greater than you.” And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.”  Then Pharaoh took his signet ring off his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand; and he clothed him in garments of fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. And he had him ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried out before him, “Bow the knee!” So he set him over all the land of Egypt. Pharaoh also said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no man may lift his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.”

Mashiach is the preeminent servant of the King. As such he is not only "second in command" but is treated at if he were the king himself:

A king's servant is a king. Attach yourself to a captain and people will bow down to you. Become close to one who is anointed (important) and you will become anointed. 22

The Zohar makes this powerful statement regarding the Messiah at the end of the age:

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, 107b - For whilst the Holy One is taking vengeance on the idolatrous nations, He “will make a man more precious than gold”, to wit, the Messiah, who will be raised and glorified above all mankind, and to whom all mankind will pay homage and bow down, as it is written, “Before him those that dwell in the wilderness will bow down ... the Kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall render tribute” (Psalm 72:9-10).

Joseph's "Purity"

Another important concept mentioned earlier (see notes to 14:3-5) is that of sexual purity in relation to making a connection to God and receiving prophecy. Joseph proves himself in this area when he resisted the advances of Potiphar's wife.

Sexual purity is directly tied to the covenant of circumcision and enhancing the coming of Messiah:

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, 93b - Another then discoursed on the text: And Joseph said to his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you, and they came near (Genesis. 45:4). He said: ‘Seeing that they were already standing by him, why did he tell them to come near? The reason was that when he said to them “I am Joseph your brother”, they were dumbfounded, seeing his royal state, so he showed them the sign of the covenant and said to them: “It is through this that I have attained to this estate, through keeping this intact.” From this we learn that whoever keeps intact this sign of the covenant is destined for kingship. Another example is Boaz, who said to Ruth, “As the Lord liveth, lie down until the morning” (Ruth 3:13). By this adjuration he exorcised his passion, and because he guarded the covenant he became the progenitor of the greatest lineage of kings, and of the Messiah, whose name is linked with that of God.’

Sexual purity is a messianic trait according to Rabbi Nachman of Breslov:

Everyone, according to his level of holiness and purity, has a messianic aspect ... the messianic aspect hinges mainly on abstaining from adultery.  23

Joseph not being recognized / Messiah ben Joseph

Another mystical trait of Messiah ben Joseph is in his brethren not recognizing him when he comes.

Yosef recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him -- This is one of the traits of Yosef not only in his own generation, but in every generation, i.e., that Mashiach ben Yosef recognizes his brothers, but they do not recognize him.  This is the work of Satan, who hides the characteristics of Mashiach ben Yosef so that the footsteps of the Mashiach are not recognized and are even belittled because of our many sins. Otherwise, our troubles would already have ended.   Were Israel to recognize Yosef, that is, the footsteps of ben Yosef the Mashiach which is the ingathering of the exiles etc., then we would already have been redeemed with a complete redemption. 24

The text further states that Joseph's brothers dwelling on what they perceived as arrogance caused them to miss who he really was:

“Yosef understood” -- in the verse: “and they did not know that Yosef understood them.” Without the vau in the first word, the two words in gematria equal Mashiach ben Yosef [566].  This means that the brothers did not know that the mission of Yosef was that he was Mashiach ben Yosef.  The Gaon has already explained the first thought of Yosef’s brothers.  They knew that when the soul of our forefather Abraham went down into the world, a “layer” from the right side attached itself to him.  Therefore Ismael came out of him: in order to separate that layer from him.  When the soul of our forefather Isaac went down into the world, a layer from the left side attached itself to him.  Therefore Esau came out of him in order to separate that layer from him.  The brothers thought that the center layer had attached itself to Jacob, who is the middle line.  But when they saw that Yosef was acting in line with the traits of arrogance, they felt certain that Yosef was the layer that had separated itself from Jacob.  They did not know his holiness and great mission to prepare the way for the Redemption. 25

Messiah ben Joseph as a "suffering servant"

Kol Hator also alludes to "two comings of Messiah" (albeit not as Christianity presents it), as Messiah ben Joseph must accomplish his role prior to Messiah ben David his. Just as Joseph had to go ahead of his brethren and suffer before rising to his designated role.

Note the multiple references in Kol Hator to the "servant song" from Isaiah regarding Messiah ben Joseph:

... "repair of the world in the Malchut of the Almighty” -- Wherever repair is mentioned, it is part of the mission of Mashiach ben Yosef.  This is the ultimate purpose of all the work connected with the beginning of the footsteps of the Mashiach, whose main goals are as follows: to gather in the exiles, rebuild Jerusalem, remove the impure spirit from Eretz Israel, redeem Truth, sanctify the name of God, and repair the world in the Malchut of the Almighty, as is written: “with their own eyes they will see when God returns to Zion” (Isaiah  52:8). This refers to the ingathering of the exiles. “Burst out, sing glad songs together, O ruins of Jerusalem” (Isaiah  52:9). This refers to rebuilding Jerusalem and reviving the land that has been desolate. “God has comforted his people, he has redeemed Jerusalem” (Isaiah  52:9), refers to God’s redemption of Truth, for Jerusalem is called “the city of Truth” (Zach.  8:3). “God has exposed His holy arm before all the nations” (Isaiah  52:10), refers to sanctifying the name of God. “All ends of the earth will see the salvation of our God” (Isaiah 52:10), refers to repairing the world in the Malchut of the Almighty. All of these are the mission of the mashiach of the beginning, the first Mashiach, Mashiach ben Yosef, who comes at the time of the awakening from below, and will find completion when Mashiach ben David comes, speedily in our day, Amen. 26


The tzaddik who associates himself with Messiah through Torah may become "one" with him (i.e., 1 John 2:3-6, John 6:35-59). Such a union enables a person to share in the soul or "mind" of the Messiah (i.e., 1 Corinthians 2:16).   

Such a person can bring about unifications in the spiritual realms:

Now com and see what the power is of the tzadikim, who hold fast to the Torah and its commandments. They have the power to connect all the emanations making peace between and within the upper and lower worlds.  When the true pure man joins the attribute tzedek (i.e., Malkut) with tzadik (i.e., Yesod) it is then known as YHVH is One, thus creating peace between the upper heavenly court and the lower one. The heavens and the earth are united by this person. 27

This fulfills the ultimate purpose of man:

In the normal order of things, heaven and earth do not meet, for the spiritual source of something is of an altogether different order than is its physical manifestation. Only man can remove this barrier, for man is created in G-d's image and thus, like G-d, is immune to the incongruity of heaven and earth. 28

This soul of Messiah has the "fullness of the Godhead" (Colossians 2:9) meaning a "perfect balance" of the Sefirot, and emanates from a level higher than other souls (one including and transcending all time and space).

As stated by Rabbi Nachman of Breslov:

... the Keter (Arikh Anpin) is the loftiest Parfutz (personae of the Sefirot). But the ARI writes, Keter actually has two levels, a lower level corresponding to Arikh Anpin and an upper level, the intellect of Arikh Anpin, which corresponds to Atik. Atik is referred to in the holy writings by several names: Atik ("The Ancient One"), Atik Yomin ("The Ancient of Days"), Atika Kadisha ("The Holy Ancient One"). ... The connection between Mashiach and Atik is learned from Daniel's vision: "A man came and he approached (the level of) the Ancient of Days ..." Rashi explains that this refers to Mashiach, who will minister justice to the entire world. ... Atik thus transcends anything that we can conceive -- giving and receiving, right and left, reward and punishment, and so on. At this level there is neither past or future. Everything is in the present. And, as we have seen, every part of Creation, from the first constriction, until the lowest level of the world of Asiyah, is contained within Keter. Thus Atik includes all time and space -- yet transcends it all. The soul of Mashiach "resides" within Atik, and it is from this level that all his powers will be drawn. And, since he transcends time and space, Mashiach can transcend every transgression ever committed and rectify it -- for since he can transcend everything ever done, he can bring each person to a state prior to his having sinned. ... With this power inherent in this exalted level, Mashiach will be able to bring the world to a state of perfection. 29

1. Chapter 9 title of Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul), Rabbi Yecheil Bar-Lev, Petach Tikva, 1994.

2. For example;,,

3. Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul), Rabbi Yecheil Bar-Lev, Petach Tikva, 1994, p. 234, 235.

4. From - Parshas Vaeschanan/Nachamu, Pleading in Comfort, by Rabbi Pinchas Winston.

5. Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul), Rabbi Yecheil Bar-Lev, Petach Tikva, 1994. pp. 349,350.

6. Citation of a prayer from the 16th century school of Rabbi Joseph Tzayach (Rabbi of Jerusalem and Damascus) as found in Meditation and the Bible, Aryeh Kaplan, Samuel Weiser Inc., York Beach, Maine, 1978, p. 72.

7. Secrets of the Future Temple (Mishkney Elyon), Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, translated by Avraham Greenbaum, Temple Institute and Azamra Institute, Jerusalem, 1999, p.35.

8. Yedid Nefesh (Song of the Soul), Rabbi Yecheil Bar-Lev, Petach Tikva, 1994. p. 269.

9.  ibid., p. 274.

10. ibid., p. 319

11. Nukveh as "daughter" to Binah and Chokhmah is considered both the "sister" and the "bride" of Ze'er Anpin. This concept is key to understanding texts such as Song of Songs (Song of Solomon) in the Bible, in which the female character is presented as both bride and sister to the same man.

12. Secrets of the Future Temple (Mishkney Elyon), Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, translated by Avraham Greenbaum, Temple Institute and Azamra Institute, Jerusalem, 1999, p.69.

13. From

14. Physician of the Soul, Healer of the Cosmos, Isaac Luria and His Kabbalistic Fellowship, Lawrence Fine, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 2003, p. 282.

15. Ariel Chumash, Parsha Miketz. United Israel Institutes, Jerusalem, p. 347. Footnote to verse: "The Hebrew has, 'in whom is the spirit of God.' The phrase 'spirit of God' is altered to avoid the irreverent suggestion that man could truly partake of God's spirit. Onkelos refers to Joseph's gift as the spirit of prophecy because he foretold the future." (Nefesh Hager, a commentary on Onkolos.)

16. Kol Hator (Voice of the Turtledove), chapter 2, the "156 aspects and characteristics of Mashiach ben Yosef," as found on

17. ibid, chapter 1,

18. ibid, chapter 2,

19. Along the Path: Studies in Kabbalistic Myth, Symbolism, and Hermeneutics, Elliot R. Wolfson, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1995, p. 98.

20. On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead: Basic Concepts in the Kabbalah, Gershom Scholem, Schocken Books, New York, 1991, p. 139

21. Mashiach - Who? What? Why? How? Where? When?, (an exposition of the teachings of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov), Chaim Kramer, Breslov Research Institute, Jerusalem, pp. 185-186.

22. Ariel Chumash, Volume 1 (Bereishit-Chaye Sarah), United Israel Institutes, Jerusalem, 1997, p. 52.

23. Likkutei Moharan 2:32, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov.

24. Kol Hator (Voice of the Turtledove) chapter 2,

25. ibid.

26. ibid.

27. Sha'are Orah ("Gates of Light"), Rabbi Joseph Gikatilla, translated by Avi Weinstein, Altamira Press, 1994, p. 63..

28 From:

29. Mashiach - Who? What? Why? How? Where? When?, (an exposition of the teachings of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov), Chaim Kramer, Breslov Research Institute, Jerusalem, pp. 208-209.