It is suggested that the student have copies of the basic Tree of Life and the extended Tree, present during the text analysis. The links below provide diagrams without annotation, enabling you to enter your own references.
1 A revelation of Messiah Yeshua, that God gave to him, to show to his servants what things it must soon come to pass quickly; and he did signify [it], having sent through his messenger to his servant John
John's opening statement holds a great many details, which we will analyze individually.
A revelation ...
The book of Revelation sets John's vision from Messiah at two levels. Through chapter 3, we are concerned with Messianic assemblies and events primarily in the physical world in linear time. That would place this part of John's vision at the level of the Da'at (knowledge) of Yetzirah, similar to the other prophets, with the exception of Moses (and perhaps Enoch, as depicted in that extra-Biblical book). This Sephirah is also the Yesod (foundation) of Beriah, and is said to be the location of the archangel Gabriel, who "guides the person" from the "upper face" of Yetzirah to the "lower face" of Beriah, where he can experience prophetic vision (i.e., Daniel 8:16; 9:21). (See previous study on upper and lower faces in the Tree of Life.)
Beginning in chapter 4, (i.e., "Come up hither ..."), John receives an even higher level of perception. This portion of the vision is at the level of Beriah, where John's view is not limited to linear time and earthly events. This level of prophecy stems from the Da'at (knowledge) of Beriah, which is simultaneously the Yesod (foundation) of the Divine world of Azilut. As discussed earlier, Da'at is the realm of the Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit), to which access is granted through Tipheret, which acts as a "gate," namely, a gate of truth.
The Da'at of Beriah, from which John receives the latter, more mystical, part of his vision, is just below (or if you will), directly in the presence of, the Tipheret of Azilut. This Sephirah is associated with Metatron, who is "Head of Creation" and "Divine Son" of the Father (Hokhmah) and Mother (Binah) aspects of God.
(See previous background notes, as well as additional comments on Metatron and Tipheret below.)
... of Messiah Yeshua
As was also mentioned in our background studies, Tipheret is both a barrier and gate to the Da'at (knowledge) beyond it, the latter of which itself is the foundation (Yesod) of the world above it.
Tipheret (which as we discuseed, is the "synthesis" of all the Sephirot), represents God's salvation throughout the worlds -- "His Yeshua." (i.e., Matthew 1:21: "And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Yeshua, for he shall save his people from their sins.")
This salvation extends down the central pillar of "Jacob's Ladder," the Sephirotic Tree of Life, and becomes Derech Hashem, "the Path of God," for man to follow "back to God." Recall that Yeshua referred to Himself as this ladder in John 1:51. The perfect revelation of God, decends "down Jacob's ladder," as the earthly tzaddik spiritually "climbs up Jacob's ladder."
This is similar to Mount Sinai, where God "came down" and the people "went up." Note that Moses was able to "go up higher" than the elders, who in turn, could ascend higher than the people. This is indicative of the "spiritual level" of each. Those at a lower level were warned not to come any "closer" to God, as they did not (yet) merit this.
... that God gave to him
This instruction "from God to Messiah" was not something the latter received in the physical realm while walking the earth among us, some 2000 years ago. Messiah is the same yesterday, today and forever (Hebrews 13:8), and existed beyond the physical world of Asiyyah since the "foundation of the world." (Various aspects of this are presented in: Matthew 13:35; 25:34; John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; Hebrews 4:3; 9:26; 1 Peter 1:20, and Revelation 13:8; 17:8).
The Talmud also speaks of the name of Messiah (His teachings, authority, function, etc.), pre-existing the created world:
As mentioned in our earlier background study on the Divine Aspects of Messiah, Kabbalistic literature links God as Creator to the Messiah and the Divine Tzaddik:
John states that the message from God comes though Yeshua, an intermediary. As seen in our background studies, the Zohar applies this same role to the Messianic figure Metatron, through whom all our prayers pass, and through whom passes everything coming from heaven to earth (as with Yeshua, in 1 John 2:1-2, 1 Timothy 2:5):
As seen in the diagrams of the extended Tree of Life, the path from Metatron, at the Tipheret of Azilut, going to John, passes through the Sephirah of Messiah, which is at the Tipheret of Beriah. This is reflected in the idea that the 42-letter Name of God, which is associated with Metatron, was inscribed on the Rod of Aaron/Moses (as discussed in our background studies). This rod had had a "heavenly connection" and would transmit the power of God when it touched something in the physical realm. It can be viewed as a physical representation of the "central path" of salvation of the Tree of Life, from the Keter of Azilut ("I AM THAT I AM"), through Tipheret at each level, to the Malkut of Asiyyah.
As previously discussed, both the figure of Metatron and the Sephirah of Tipheret are seen as holding characteristics fulfilled in Yeshua. An interesting link can be found between the two, having to do with the subject of Tefillin. These are the ornaments worn on the arm and forehead in literal fulfillment of the commandment found in Deuteronomy chapter 6. In Kabbalistic literature, the Tefillah of the hand represents Malkut (Kingdom), and that of the head, Tipheret. Binding the two parts to your body is symbolic of unifying Malkut to Tipheret - unifying the Name of God.
There is a recorded dispute between two prominent Kabbalists, Rabbi Avrohom ben David (Rabad) and Rabbi Moses Nachmanides (Ramban). Rabad taught that it was Metatron, a created being (and the inner "angel" of Ezekiel's prophecy), who wore the Tefillin. Ramban believed that the donner of Tefillin was the Tipheret of the Divine world of Azilut ("the Holy One Blessed be He").4
The tension between these two positions is resolved when one recognizes that Metatron is both the first-born and head of Creation (at the Keter of Beriah) as well as the Tipheret of Azilut.
... to show His servants
Why does God show this to His servants? A similar question is, Why did He command the study of Ezekiel's Temple? (See notes on the Mysteries of the Temple.) God is not interested in us becoming more proficient at "Bible Trivia." There is a purpose for such understanding, namely for us to apply what we learn, thus enabling us to conformed to His image and bring tikkun (restoration) to the world. Both Ezekiel's instruction on study of the Temple, and John's vision in this book, hold the promise of great blessing to the tzaddik who seeks to learn the deeper (i.e., kabbalistic) aspects of God.
... what things it must soon come to pass quickly
That which will "come to pass" leads to the Supernal Sabbath (the seventh Millennium). This is the beginning of an age of righteousness, where all is again brought into harmony in God.
Daniel, (whose book is significantly linked to John's vision), spoke of this time:
The harmony ("tipheret") of the Supernal Sabbath was mentioned earlier in our study of spiritual time and space:
This work of God is opposed by the efforts of haSatan, who desires to put into place his own unholy unification. (This is an important theme of the book of Revelation.) As haSatan in the past did not succeed using men (Babel, ancient Babylon), he will try at the end of days to accomplish this himself in the form of a single man, the anti-Messiah. HaSatan imitates God in this fashion, (in both the physical and spiritual realms), as God also first "tried" to do this through men, (His first "messiah" was the nation of Israel - and those who maintain Torah remain a messiah to Him to this day), before He Himself came as the Sephirot in a tabernacle of flesh, in the form of Yeshua, to accomplish this.
God promised to bring salvation Himself, Isaiah speaks of this in terms of someone coming from Bozrah whose garements are washed in wine/blood:
Isaiah 63:1-6 - Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. And I looked, and there was none to help; and I wondered that there was none to uphold: therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me. And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth. The Zohar tells us that this person is the Messiah, whose work has been done since the time of creation:
Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 239b, 240a - "He hath washed his garments in wine", even from the time of the Creation the reference being to the coming of the Messiah on earth. "Wine" indicates the left side, and "the blood of grapes" the left side below. The Messiah is destined to rule above over all the forces of the idolatrous nations and to break their power above and below. We may also explain that as wine brings joyfulness and yet typifies judgement, so the Messiah will bring gladness to Israel, but judgement to the Gentiles. The "spirit of God which hovered over the face of the waters" (Gen. I, 2) is the spirit of the Messiah, and from the time of the Creation he "washed his garments in celestial wine."
The Supernal Sabbath is spoken of in many ways, an important one of which is the unification of the Name of God, specifically in the reunion of the bride (the Shekinah with faithful Israel, as represented by Malkut/Kingdom) with the bridegroom (the Messiah, as represented by Tipheret, who brings "harmony.") Our study on the Shekinah offers additional information on the subject of the Shekinah as bride to the Messiah.
The Supernal Sabbath is also seen as a unification of the "male" and "female" aspects of God Malkut (kingdom) representing the bride/feminine and Tipheret (beauty) being the groom/masculine:
... through his messenger
"Angel" and "messenger" are equivalent terms. It is not unusual in Hebrew literature to have one of the Divine Sephirot referred to as angel/messenger. For instance, the Sephirot of Hod and Netzah are referred to as the Hosts of Elohim and Hosts of YHWH respectively.
Another example is found in Nachmanides' exegesis of Exodus, where he refers to the Sephirah of Malkhut (the Shekinah) as,
See our background study on the Realm of Angels as messengers of God's perfect will.
2 who did testify the word of God, and the testimony of Messiah Yeshua, as many things also as he did see.3 Happy is he who is reading, and those hearing, the words of the prophecy and keeping the things written in it -- for the time is near!
The word of God, and the Testimony of Messiah Yeshua ...
John's revelation is grounded in the existing Torah (the Word of God), as well as the "testimony of Yeshua." This is important, as other Jewish writings teach many of the same "end time" concepts as John does. We will be referring to these sources throughout this study.
The Hebrew meaning of "hearing" and "keeping" gives deeper insight into what is being said here:
The book of Revelation begins with a promise of a blessing to those who hear and obey. It ends with a curse (Rev. 22:18-19) to those who do not adhere to its teachings. Between these "bookends" is the message that those who obey God's Torah are the ones that will acquire the blessings of God:
Revelation mirrors Gods word in Deuteronomy, where He promises blessings to those who obey His Torah (in faith Hebrews 4:2), and curses to those who do not heed it.
Note that Moses calls upon two witnesses to this revelation, those being heaven and earth:
According to Torah, witnesses to a capital offense would initiate the punishment of a person meriting judgment (i.e., witnesses cast the first rocks at a stoning.) In Revelation, we can see judgment being meted out by Moses witnesses heaven and earth unleash horrific plagues upon mankind for rebelling against God.
(A comparison of the judgments in Revelation to the books of Matthew, Leviticus and Deuteronomy, was mentioned earlier in our background study of Yom Kippur and the New Covenant.)Messiah, (trusting in whom is a part of Torah), is central to Gods blessings. As such, we find that the Zohar designates blessings to those who concern themselves with Gods Torah, finding themselves linked to Tipheret (which as we have shown is linked to Messiah):
The above is a midrash on these words of King David, who made the same claim concerning Torah:
4 John to the seven assemblies that [are] in Asia: Grace to you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who is coming, and from the Seven Spirits that are before His throne, The Number "Seven"
The number seven is significant in Hebrew culture and faith, having come to symbolize both a number of completion, as well as an incomplete structure that is representative of a greater truth. The number seven as it appears in the Bible is connected with every aspect of religious life in almost every time frame.7
Examples of the use of the number seven include:
Examples of the importance of the number seven, from Hebraic literature, include:
Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 230b-232a - R. Jose discoursed on the verse: Whereupon were the foundations thereof fastened ? (Job XXXVIII, 6). He said: When God created the world, He established it on seven pillars. Talmud - Mas. Pesachim 54a - Surely it was taught: Seven things were created before the world was created, and these are they: The Torah, repentance, the Garden of Eden, Gehenna, the Throne of Glory, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah.
The number seven is also associated with a complete measure of punishment, which is significant in the book of Revelation.
Examples of this are:
Seven is also associated with the demonic realm:
In Revelation 1:4, seven assemblies are written to, which are not only the seven physical assemblies of that time, but representative of "types" of assemblies (including future ones), particularly those living in the days where the prophecies of Revelation would come into play.
Both Moses and Yeshua taught in this fashion, speaking to their generations with future ones in mind, particularly the one to come at the end of the age. (i.e., in Deuteronomy chapters 29 and 30, Moses speaks to those in front of him as the generation that will see the final salvation of the Lord.)
The Greek word, ekklesia, found throughout Revelation does not mean "church" as seen in most Bibles. The word "church" does not exist in Scripture and was added in more recent times by the Christian church in order to strengthen its claim that it has replaced Israel as the people of God. Young's Literal Translation uses the term "assemblies." The Jewish New Testament uses "Messianic Communities." Both of these properly retain the original Hebrew meaning of the text.
The idea found in some teachings, that the seven assemblies represent consecutive time periods in "church history," also has no basis. This teaching is derived from the concept that we are living in the current "enlightened church age" of Philadelphia, and that the Laodicean age will be the "apostate church" of the Tribulation period. The record of history however, does not show any periods that align themselves with five assemblies previous to Philadelphia. Such interpretations are the result of stripping the text from its original Hebraic meaning.... Him who is, and who was, and who is coming
... Seven Spirits that are before His throne
... and from Yeshua Messiah (verse 5)
John's "trifold" greeting comes from various expressions of the Sephirot. The first is in the form of "Him who is, and who was, and who is coming," which would refer to the heavenly Yeshua (i.e., Revelation 22:20), i.e, "Tipheret."
As mentioned earlier in this study, Tipheret is the embodiment of all Sephirot, as well as the coming "bridegroom":
The next part of John's greeting is from the "Seven Spirits," which are the lower seven Sephirot, before the throne. (Refer to our background study on the arrangement of the Sephirot.) John's statement is an affirmation of the unity of God, as expressed in the Shema.
Lastly, John greets his readers from Messiah Yeshua, the Divine Tzaddik, who lived among us, was resurrected (i.e., verse 5 below), and will return as He left (Acts 1:11).5 and from Messiah Yeshua, the faithful witness, the first-born out of the dead, and the sovereign of the earth (the ruler of the kings of the earth) to him who did love us, and did bathe us from our sins in his blood, ... Sovereign of the Earth The Zohar (below) portrays Tipheret as the one who will be sovereign of the earth. The allusion to "right and left" is to the merciful and judgmental sides of God, which (as seen in our background material) are placed in harmony with Tipheret:
Zohar Appendix III - The Designations and The Categories, 3b - "A second use of the terms right and left is based on the identification of the grade Tifereth with the Holy King, the Ruler and Judge of the world. The Holy King as judge can exercise either clemency or rigour, and it is a not unnatural figure to say that He exercises clemency with His right hand and rigour with His left" ... bathe us from our sins in his blood
The concept of being "bathed in blood," (and making us into a priesthood - re: verse 6) is also an allusion to the sealing of the Torah covenant with blood, and to the priesthood:
Just as the original covenant was sealed with blood, so is the renewed covenant, with the blood of Messiah, which does not negate the original. The covenant at Sinai was based on the blood of animals and promise of Israel, God's earthly messiah (i.e., "All the words which YHWH has spoken we do.") The renewed covenant was based on Messiah's shed blood and His "better promise," and is grounded in God's Torah, just as the original was.
(See our comments to Hebrews chapter 8 and Hebrews chapter 9 [also written to Jewish believers as the primary audience], which offer explanation as to the sacrificial work of Yeshua as our Yom Kippur sacrifice.)"Seeing God"
As mentioned in our background study on the Names of God, concerning the verse in Exodus 24 (see above quotation), that says "they saw the God of Israel," -- without an understanding of the Sephirot, there would be a clear contradition in the Bible, as we are told that no man has ever seen "God." The voice (Tipheret) of God was projected to Moses (giving him the Torah), in a similar fashion as the sword (Torah) comes from the mouth of Yeshua. (See comments on verse 16.)
Peter supports the idea of God redeeming Israel with blood, and the words of Isaiah 49, that Messiah existed "hidden" since before the foundation of the world, yet "manifested" in the days they lived in, and that He would be despised by His people (the "builders"):
Isaiah 49 is an important passage for understanding the physical manifestation of Messiah in Yeshua (sovereign of the earth / "King of kings"). Isaiah speaks of one "called from the womb" whose mouth is like a "sharp sword." This person was "hidden in the shadow of Gods hand" and in His "quiver." The latter reference can be understood as that emanation of God "hidden" within the Sephirot. The person is also called "Israel," in whom God will be glorified, yet this person is also the one who returns Jacob (the nation of Israel) to God, as well as bringing salvation to the gentiles. This "Israel" is the Supernal Israel, which again is associated with the sephirah of Tipheret.
This same person in Isaiah 49, is "despised by the nation" (Israel). He will arise to be "worshipped by kings and princes." God "hears" this person and "preserves" him to be a (new/renewed) covenant to the people at some point in time. This person will establish the earth (bring harmony/tipheret) and preach to "the prisoners," who will in turn find Gods salvation through "springs of water." (See teaching on River of Eden) God then reminds the nation of Israel, that He will never abandon them, as they are "engraved in the palms of His hand."
The final verses reveal who the prisoners in darkness are the "lost children" of the bride the Jews among the nations ("Ephraim," also called the "fullness of the gentiles") who will return to their Torah and Messiah, through the work of Messiah. Those who oppose Israel (and thus God), are said to be made drunk with their own blood an allusion that will be important later in this study.
6 and did make us a kingdom of priests (kings and priests) to his God and Father, to him [is] the glory and the power to the ages of the ages! Amen.... a Kingdom of Priests
Isaiah, speaking of the end times, says this of Israels destiny:
But you shall be named the priests of the LORD, they shall call you the servants of our God. You shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory you shall boast.
Peter makes reference to this "kingdom of priests" in his epistle:
1 Peter 2:4-5 - Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious, you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Messiah Yeshua.
1 Peter 2:7-10 - Therefore, to you who believe, He is precious; but to those who are disobedient, "The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone," and "A stone of stumbling And a rock of offense." They stumble, being disobedient to the word, to which they also were appointed. But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; who once were not a people but are now the people of God, who had not obtained mercy but now have obtained mercy.
It is important to note to whom Peter is speaking. His letter is addresses to the Jewish believers in the diaspora NOT to a gentile "church":
Peter later addresses his audience as those who were, "once not a people" of God, but now are:
Again, this is not a reference to a gentile "church." Hosea shows us who Peter is referring to. Hosea was a prophet to the northern tribes, known collectively as Ephraim. God specifically calls this group, "Not a people." Those who are the Israelites of the northern tribes who went away from God into spiritual adultery. Their sin was spiritual adultery, the replacement of Gods Torah with a false torah (something that will be addressed in the next chapter studies.)
The people "who now have obtained mercy" are the faithful remnant of Ephraim/Israel, scattered among the nations this is Peters audience. (See also Isaiah 49 [above] for God reaching out to the diaspora.)
Isaiah spoke of God's promise to Israel in these terms:
It is important to note that God promises that even those who cannot become priests in the (previous) earthly Temple, will one day be allowed to do so in the Millennial Temple. These are those gentiles who become part of the covenant of Israel:
Isaiah 66: 21 - And I will also take some of them [gentiles] for priests and Levites," says YHWH.
Isaiah 56:4-8 - For thus said YHVH of the eunuchs, Who do keep My sabbaths, And have fixed on that which I desired, And are keeping hold on My covenant: I have given to them in My house, And within My walls a station and a name, Better than sons and than daughters, A name age-during I give to him That is not cut off. And sons of the stranger [gentiles], who are joined to YHWH, To serve Him, and to love the name of YHVH, To be to Him for servants, Every keeper of the sabbath from polluting it, And those keeping hold on My covenant. I have brought them unto My holy mountain, And caused them to rejoice in My house of prayer, Their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices [Are] for a pleasing thing on Mine altar, For My house, `A house of prayer,' Is called for all the peoples. An affirmation of the Lord YHVH, Who is gathering the outcasts of Israel: `Again I gather to him -- to his gathered ones.'
Paul supports what the Torah (above) says, making it clear that a gentile coming to faith in Yeshua, goes from being apart from the faith of Israel, to being included in it (and not having some "new" faith to follow):
The above is significant with regard to the "enmity" the Torah creates between certain groups, i.e., Jew and gentile, eunuch and whole, male and female. (Note the Torah itself is not the enmity which was removed.) This enmity was done away with at the death of Yeshua, as it was only after this that He instructed His disciples to "go out to the gentiles" (preaching Torah!) The enmity will be fully dissolved in the Millennium, the time of the Supernal Sabbath. (See our Romans study for more on this topic.)
The Supernal Temple and Priesthood (of the order of Melchisedek) are of a different (heavenly) order -- one that predates the earthly Temple and Levitical priesthood. Thus, this is not a "change" to the Torah, but a "renewal," that was already part of Torah, as neither Torah or God changes. (In a similar fashion, the "New Covenant" in the book of Jeremiah is also a "Renewed Covenant.")
A newly published Hebraic Roots translation of the New Testament, correctly reflects this:
As mentioned in our background study, Midrash Rabbah has references to Tipheret as being associated with the office of High Priest, thus supporting Revelations claim to believers being a kingdom of priests, under Messiah Yeshua, the High Priest:
Midrash Rabbah - Esther II:1 - A fool spendeth all his spirit (Prov. XXIX, 11): this applies to Ahasuerus. But a wise man stilleth it within him (ib.): this applies to God who calmed Ahasuerus, in the same way as it says, Who stillest the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, and the tumult of the peoples (Ps. LXV, 8.). 1. WHEN HE SHOWED THE RICHES OF HIS GLORIOUS KINGDOM (I, 4). The School of Jannai and Hezekiah both said: He used every day to open six treasuries and show them the contents. R. Hiyya b. Abba said: He showed them the accounts of his expenditure. R. Judah b. Simon said: He showed them the dishes of the Land of Israel. R. Levi said He showed them the priestly robes. It says here, HIS GLORIOUS (TIFERETH) KINGDOM, and it says elsewhere, And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, for splendour and for beauty-le-tifereth (Ex. XXVIII, 2). Just as the word 'tifereth' there refers to the garments of the high priest, so here it refers to the garments of the high priest.
(See notes to verse 13 in the next section, regarding Metatron as the High Priest depicted in Ephesians 6:11-17.)
1. The Way of Kabbalah, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, Samuel Weiser, Inc., York Beach Maine, 1976, p. 213.
2. Along the Path: Studies in Kabbalistic Myth, Symbolism, and Hermeneutics, Elliot R. Wolfson, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1995, p. 83.
3. On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead: Basic Concepts in the Kabbalah, Gershom Scholem, Schocken Books, New York, 1991, p. 96.
4. Ramban: Philosopher and Kabbalist, Chayim J. Henoch, Jason Aronson, Inc., London 1998, pp. 280-281.
5. ibid, p. 281
6. A recommended resource for understanding the linguistic Hebrew roots of Revelation is A Semitic Approach to the Text of Revelation, edited by James Scott Trimm, available from firstname.lastname@example.org.
7. The Jewish Book of Numbers, Ronald H. Isaacs, Jason Aronson, Inc., London, 1996, p.64.
8. Hebraic Roots Version New Testament, Society for the Advancement of Nazarene Judaism, 2001, Hurst Texas, http://www.nazarene.net/hrv/index.htm. The footnote states: Aramaic: SHUKLAFA from the Semitic root KHALAF "Change, transform, renew or revive". The word SHUKLAFA appears only five times in the entire Peshita NT. Of these, all but one (Ya'akov 1:17) are in Hebrews. Of those four usages, three of them are right here in our section (7:11-12, 18-19), the other is in 12:27 where it implies a renewal or repair and seems to refer back in summary to the three usages in Chapter 7 which we are dealing with. The Hebrew form of this same root is Strong's word # 2498. This Hebrew cognate of the word appears in Is. 40:31 & 41:1 ". . . let the people renew their strength . . .". The verb is used to mean "renew" or "revive" in the Hebrew Tanak in Is. 40:31; 41:1; Job 14:7, 13 & 29:20. The Peshitta Tanak agrees and uses the KHALAF verb in Is. 40:31; 41:1; Job 14:7 & 29:20 to mean "renew". The Greek translator misunderstood the word here to mean "change" however there can be no change of the Torah (Deut. 4:2; 12:32 & Mt. 5:17).
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