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Revelation 7:1a
Last update: March 6, 2002

Within this section, we will focus attention on the following themes:

  • The significance of the number "four"
  • The "connectivity" between the upper and lower worlds
  • The relationship between the first six and the seventh judgments in each series
  • Gemmatria concerning the "Vav" and final "Hey" of the Divine name, YHVH

1a  And after these things I saw four messengers, standing upon the four corners of the land, holding the four winds of the land ...

The number "four" hold a great deal of mystical significance, especially regarding things beyond the physical world (Asiyyah):
  • Four letters of the Divine Name, YHVH
  • Four keys associated with these letters (see Zohar Shemot 133b-136a on the angel "Boel")
  • Four "heavenly colors" of white, red, green and black (or sapphire)
  • Four worlds of Atzilut, Beriah, Yetzirah and Asiyyah
  • Four elements of the physical world; earth, water, fire, air
  • Four holy creatures (Ezekiel 1 and Revelation 4)
  • Four figure of a lion, eagle, ox and man
  • Four horsemen of Revelation chapter 6
  • Four sides of the camp around the Tabernacle (see previous study on the Tribes)
  • Four heads of the river of Eden into which it was divided (Genesis 2:10)
  • Four horns that scatter Judah in Zachariah 2:1
  • Four levels of spiritual hierarchy in Israel (High Priests, Priests, Levites, Israelites)
  • Four garments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur
  • Four rows of stones on the breastplate of the High Priest
  • Four corners of the altar
  • Four cups of wine, four types of sons and four questions asked at the Passover Seder
  • Four  species used at Sukkot; lulav, etrog, myrtle and palm branches
  • Four steps in God's plan of redemption (Exodus 6:6-7 - also see "Torah Etz Chaim")
  • Four steps in the creation of man (Isaiah 43:7)
  • Four blessings given after a meal (prayers for; food, Israel, Jerusalem and God's goodness)

The number four is associated with that which upholds the heavenlies as well as connects to the earth. As seen in the following series of texts, it plays a role from the heavenly throne room down to our dinner table in this physical world.

In this first citation, the heavenly firmament is shown to be upheld by the four Holy Creatures (Hayoth). Note the reference to how the four divine colors (green, red, white, sapphire) are said to "decompose" into twelve. This may be associated with the twelve colors of the foundations of the walls of New Jerusalem on earth (Revelation 21:19-20).

Note the angels singing of "holy, holy, holy," is toward the directions of east, south and north. To the west, the direction of Malkut, they say "blessed." This is comparable to what is usually cited with the Shema, where the first verse is associated with God in the heavenly realms (Shema Israel Adonai Elohenu, Adonai Echad), and the second verse links "blessed" with the Kingdom on earth. ("Baruch Shem K'vod Malkhuto L'olam Va'ed - Blessed is His Name whose glorious Kingdom is forever and ever."):

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 71b - AND GOD SAID TO NOAH... THIS IS THE TOKEN OF THE COVENANT WHICH I MAKE BETWEEN ME AND YOU... I HAVE SET MY RAINBOW IN THE CLOUD. The past tense "I have set" shows that the bow had already been there. In connection with this passage R. Simeon discoursed on the verse: And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone (Ezek. I, 26). ‘Before this verse,’ he said, ‘we find the words, "And when they went I heard the noise of their wings like the noise of great waters, like the voice of the Almighty" (Ibid. 24). These are the four sacred and mighty beings called Hayoth (animals), by whom the firmament is upheld, and whose wings are usually joined together to cover their bodies. When, however, they spread out their wings, a volume of sound swells forth, and they break out into songs of praise, "as the voice of the Almighty", which never becomes silent, as it is written, "so that my glory may sing praise to thee, and not be silent" (Ps. XXX, 13). The tenour of their praises is, "The Lord hath made known his salvation, his righteousness hath he revealed in the sight of the nations" (Ps. XCVIII, 2). It says further: "A noise of tumult like the noise of a host" (Ezek. I, 24), i.e. like the sound of the holy camps when all the supernal armies assemble on high. What is it they declaim? "Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory" (Is. VI, 3). They turn to the south and say "holy", they turn to the north and say "holy", they turn to the east and say "holy", they turn to the west and say "blessed". And that firmament rests upon their heads, and in whatever direction it turns, their faces turn also. They turn their faces to the four cardinal points, and all revolve in a circle. The firmament is imprinted, at the four corners of a square, with four figures, of a lion, an eagle, an ox, and a man; and the face of a man is traced in all of them, so that the face of Lion is of Man, the face of Eagle is of Man, and the face of Ox is of Man, all being comprehended in him. Hence it is written: "As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man" (Ezek. I, 10). Eurther, the firmament with its enclosed square contains the gamut of all the colours. Outstanding are four colours, each engraved with four translucent signs, both higher and lower. These when decomposed become twelve. They are green, red, white, and sapphire, which is made up of all these colours. Hence it is written, "As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord" (Ibid. I, 28): containing, that is to say, all shades of all colours.

As discussed in our study of Ezekiel's vision, the Hayoth (holy creatures) "support" the spiritual realm beneath them, that being the Ofanim. (The Hayoth support the Ophanim, even though we think of the former as being "above." This is explained in the text below.) The Ophanim in turn "connect" to the "four corners" of the physical world. Thus, that which is above is said to "diffuse" below and guide the world:

Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 241b,242a - R. Simeon discoursed in this connection on the verse: "When those went these went, and when those stood these stood" (Ezek. 1, 21). ‘That means’, he said, ‘that when the Hayoth (living creatures) went the Ofanim (Wheels) also went, as we read, "and when the Hayoth went the Ofanim went hard by them" (Ibid. 19). For the movements of the Ofanim are only induced by the movements of the Hayoth, nor can they pause independently of the Hayoth, for the two move together as one. Now the celestial gate of the east is provided with twenty-four openings guarded by twentyfour sentinels who are surrounded by a flaming fire. There are at the entrance of the gate twenty-four sockets supporting twenty- four pillars. These pillars remain in their place and do not soar into space; they are thus designated "standing ones", in the verse: "I will give thee a place to walk among these standing ones" (Zech. III, 7). And as long as those pillars remain immobile those that are above them go to and fro through the world, survey things, and whatever they overhear they carry up on high. So Scripture says: "For a bird of the air shall carry the voice" (Eccles. x, 20). Now observe that the Ofanim (Wheels) are carried by the Hayoth (living creatures). For that which is of a higher grade, though it seems to be carried by that which is of a lower grade, really carries it. It was the same with the Ark, which also carried its carriers. [Tr. note: T. B. Sotah, 35a.] We must distinguish between the Hayah, "the spirit of which was in the Of anim", and the Hayoth, with which the Ofanim went. This one turned towards all four quarters of the globe. In regard to this it says: "This is the Hayah that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar" (Ibid. x, 20); it is the same which forms a throne to the likeness of Man, and is below the superior holy Hayoth. For they are in grades, one above the other. The Throne immediately underneath the God of Israel is in the form of Jacob, and the Throne below in that of David; this is the one that turns to the four corners of the world. It follows that the spirit of the highest diffuses through the lower, and directs and guides the whole. There was similar direction in the lower world. Just as in connection with the upper world we read that "the spirit of the Hayah is in the Ofanim", so of the lower world it is written, "And Moses reared up the tabernacle", he being the guiding spirit below; wherefore it is written: "And he reared up, fixed, put."

The above text mentions the Temples above and below. The creation of Adam is associated with the four corners of the world, as well as both Temples. Man is both a physical and spiritual being:

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 130b - ‘When the Holy One, blessed be He, created Adam, He took his dust from the site of the Temple and built his body out of the four corners of the world, all of which contributed to his formation. After that He poured over him the spirit of life, as it says, "and he breathed into his nostrils the breath of life" (Gen. II, 7).

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 205b - Observe that when the Holy One, blessed be He, created Adam, He gathered his earthly matter from the four corners of the world and fashioned him therefrom on the site of the Temple here below and drew to him a soul of life out of the Temple on high.

As there are Temples above and below, it is the same with the altars. These altars have four corners, that are also associated with the "four corners" of the earth:

Soncino Zohar, Vayikra, Section 3, Page 30a - FIRE SHALL BE KEPT BURNING UPON THE ALTAR CONTINUALLY; IT SHALL NOT GO OUT. R. Hiya said: This fire is the fire of Isaac, who said (at the time of the binding), "Behold the fire and the wood" (Gen. XXII, 7), which perpetually exists. We have learnt that from the fire of Isaac there issue forth to the altar certain coals, one to the east side, one to the west side, one to the north side, and one to the south side. Now there is on the altar a footway with a certain number of steps, and the lowest step reaches to the abyss which is the highest of six, and when the coals mentioned above reach the four corners of the altar a spark shoots forth and descends to that highest abyss. In that place there are numerous hosts who proclaim "holy" with a loud voice, and on another side they say "holy" with a soft and wondrous voice, and on another side there are yet other hosts which say "holy". There are six hundred thousand myriads in each corner, all under one commander, and all clad in an ephod, who are there to carry out the service of the altar in correspondence with those on earth. In another place the waves of the sea roar and descend a certain number of degrees, and there other hosts proclaim with the voice of song: "Blessed be the glory of the Lord from his place" (Ezek. III, 12). Their song of praise is not stilled day or night, and all make melody. In another place are hosts who stand in fear and trembling. All look towards that supernal altar. When the fire of Isaac reaches the altar sparks fly about on every side, and from them many mighty beings are set aflame. And did not the priest stand by the altar and lay in order the wood, the world could not stand before them. From the sparks which issue the backs of those "living creatures" are set aflame (Ezek. I, 13). On the right side of those "living creatures" a certain wind stirs from above which blows upon that fire, so that it settles down with a steady flame and gives light to the hosts standing on the right side. Then on the left side rises a strong wind breaking the rocks which blows upon that fire and makes it burn fiercely, till it gives light to the hosts on that side. And so on all four sides for the four camps. But all are appeased when the priest goes up to the altar.’

The following passage associated the number four with Judah, the fourth son of Leah, through whom would come the Messiah, linking his name to the name YHVH and the throne of God. (Note that the letter Daleth has a numerical value of four):

Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 156a - R. Jose then took the passage: "This time will I praise the Lord." ‘Was it not’, he asked, ‘equally incumbent on her to praise God for the birth of her other sons? But the truth is that Judah, in virtue of being the fourth son, was the completion of the Heavenly Throne. Judah alone is thus the mainstay of the Heavenly Throne and is its truest support. For this very reason, moreover, was he called Judah (YHVDH), a word which contains the Divine Name with the addition of the letter Daleth (four), pointing to the four supports of the Heavenly Throne.

Just as we saw four "horsemen" of judgment in the previous chapter, the number four is found elsewhere regarding divine retribution. The Midrash Rabbah offers the following interesting insight on the four heads of the river that went forth from Eden. The nations are said to drink from this "cup of reeling" in the "time to come," which is linked to Babylon. This would seem to parallel Revelation 14;10; 16:19; 17:4; 18:6.

Midrash Rabbah - Leviticus XIII:5 - This is alluded to in what is written, And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it parted and became four heads (Gen. II, 10). R. Tanhuma, and some say R. Menahema, in the name of R. Joshua b. Levi, said: The Holy One, blessed be He, will, in the Time to Come, cause the heathen nations to drink the cup of reeling. This is indicated by what is written, ’ And a river went out of Eden (‘eden),’ i.e. from the place whence judgment (din) is to go forth. ’And from thence it parted and became four heads.’ By this is meant four rivers. The name of the first is Pishon (ib. 11), that is Babylon, in view of its having been said thereof.

The above mention of Babylon being the "first" source of judgment, is hinted at in this Scripture, which shows wickedness proceeding from Babylon going to all the earth. (Note that Shinar is Babylon):

Zechariah 5:5-11 - Then the angel that talked with me went forth, and said unto me, Lift up now thine eyes, and see what is this that goeth forth. And I said, What is it? And he said, This is an ephah that goeth forth. He said moreover, This is their resemblance through all the earth.  And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead: and this is a woman that sitteth in the midst of the ephah. And he said, This is wickedness. And he cast it into the midst of the ephah; and he cast the weight of lead upon the mouth thereof. Then lifted I up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came out two women, and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork: and they lifted up the ephah between the earth and the heaven. Then said I to the angel that talked with me, Whither do these bear the ephah? And he said unto me, To build it an house in the land of Shinar: and it shall be established, and set there upon her own base.

The mystical reference to the number four descend all the way into the reality of our physical world. There are four traditional blessings said after meals. The Zohar places extreme importance on these, associating them with the support of the angelic realm that watch over the "four corners" of the world:

Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 218a - R. Jose began a discourse on the verse: "And when Boaz had eaten and drunk, and his heart was merry", etc. (Ruth III, 7). ‘His heart was merry,’ he said, ‘by reason of his having pronounced a benediction over his food; and there is, further, a deeper significance here, to wit, that whoever says a blessing after his meal satisfies his "heart", that which is by him alluded to in the words: "In thy behalf my heart hath said" (Ps. XXVII, 8), also in, "but God is the rock of my heart" (Ibid. LXXIII, 26). For, since the blessing offered up for one's food is precious before the Holy One, blessed be He, whoever pronounces such a blessing after he is satisfied does good and brings joy to "another region". So here "another region" derived enjoyment from the blessing after the meal that the righteous Boaz pronounced, and thus we read, "and his heart was merry". Why pronounce a blessing? It is because the sustenance of man is troublesome, so to speak, for the Almighty, but when the words of the benediction pronounced by a man after eating and drinking ascend on high, that place derives an enjoyment from those words, and so benefit is drawn from the food, both below and above. This is a recondite teaching known to the Companions. Furthermore, on weekdays "that region" enjoys only the words of the after-meal benediction that ascend on high. On Sabbath days, however, there is an enjoying on high of the very food enjoyed on earth by man in virtue of this being part of the holy joy of the Sabbath. There is thus here a merging of the heavenly and the earthly. This recondite teaching is indicated in the passage, "for all things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee" (I Chron. XXIX, 14), alluding to the enjoyment in heaven of the holy joy in the Sabbath repasts partaken of below. Whoever pronounces the after-meal benediction must do so devotedly, and in a joyful mood unmingled with any tinge of sadness, inasmuch as in giving thanks he is giving of his own to someone else; and thus, as he gives thanks joyfully and unstintedly, so will sustenance be given to him joyfully and unstintedly. By the benedictions, each commencing with "Blessed art Thou", are sustained the four legions that rule over the four corners of the world. Hence we ought to recite them with heartiness. So Scripture says: "He that hath a bountiful eye shall be blessed, for he giveth of his bread to the poor" (Prov. XXII, 9),


Not surprisingly, the Shema holds a central place regarding all of the above themes. The following text from the Zohar, connects the three themes of; a) unity of all worlds, b) the four "quarters" of the universe and, c) the union of the Shekinah and Spouse, through the Shema:

Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 216a - This is the recondite significance of the declaration: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one" (Deut. VI, 4). The term SH e M a’ (hear) is esoterically analysed into SH e M (name) and the letter ‘Ain (= 70), that is, one Name comprising seventy names whilst remaining a unity. "Israel" here signifies "Ancient Israel", in contrast to "Little Israel", of whom it is written: "When Israel was a child, then I loved him" (Hos. XI, 1). "Ancient Israel" symbolizes the union of the Shekinah with her Spouse, and in pronouncing that name we have to concentrate our mind on the principle of unity, on the union of the two habitations; we have to put all our being, all the members of our body, our complete devotion, into that thought so as to rise and attach ourselves to the En-sof (Infinite), and thus achieve the oneness of the upper and the lower worlds. The words, "the Lord our God" are to reunite all the Members to the place from which they issued, which is the innermost Sanctuary. The same thought is continued in the words, "the Lord is one", in the recital of which we have to make our thoughts range throughout all the grades up to the Infinite (En-sof) in love and fear. This is the method of avowing the unity of God practised by Rab Hamnuna the Venerable, who learnt it from his father, who had it from his master, and so on, till it came from the mouth of Elijah. And it is the correct and proper method. The same Rab Hamnuna further said, that to concentrate the whole idea of unification in the term "one" (ehad) is a still better way; and it is for this reason that we dwell long over the enunciation of the word "one" (ehad), during which we effect the fusion into one of the upper and the lower worlds. As we have learnt, "one" alludes to above, below, and the four quarters of the universe, these being the supernal Chariot, so that all are embraced in a single unity reaching out to the En-sof (Infinite). After the recital of "Hear, O Israel...", we have to recite the section containing mention of the Exodus from Egypt (Num. xv, 37-41), for the reason that the Shekinah was in the Egyptian exile, and as long as She is in exile there is no union between the upper and the lower worlds. But the redemption from Egypt, attended by all those signs and wonders, set Her free; and that redemption has to be mentioned by us to show that though She was in chains She is now free, so as to join her heavenly Spouse.

The idea of union between the Shekinah and her spouse is a critical (and very deep), theme to the book of Revelation. In a sense, it is what the book of Revelation is all about - the Unification of the Name of God via the union of the divine bride and groom, haSatan's bid to interfere with this plan, and man's choice as to which "side" he will serve.

The following passage was cited in an earlier study. We quote it again here, this time to show the relationship of the letter "Vav" to the bride/Shekinah, the four corners of the earth, and also the idea of a "pause" of silence. The latter point is significant regarding the "pause" found between the sixth and seventh judgements in this first set of "seal" judgments and again in the "trumpet" and "bowl" judgments. 1

Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 133b, 134a - At the time when Israel is proclaiming the unity-the mystery contained in the Shema-with a perfect intention, a light comes forth from the hidden supernal world, which divides into seventy lights, and those seventy lights into the seventy luminous branches of the Tree of Life. Then the Tree and all the other trees of the Garden of Eden emit sweet odours and praise their Lord, for at that time the Matrona prepares Herself to enter under the shade of the canopy, there to unite herself with her Spouse; and all the supernal potencies unite in one longing and one will to be united in perfect union, without any separation soever. Then the Spouse makes ready likewise to enter the Canopy in order to unite Himself with the Matrona. Therefore we proclaim loudly: "Hear, O Israel; prepare thyself, for thy Husband has come to receive thee." And also we say: "The Lord our God, the Lord is one", which signifies that the two are united as one, in a perfect and glorious union, without any flaw of separation to mar it. As soon as the Israelites say, "The Lord is One", to arouse the six aspects, these six unite each with each and ascend in one ardour of love and desire. The symbol of this is the letter Vau (because its numerical value is six) when it stands alone without being joined to any other letter. Then the Matrona makes herself ready with joy, and adorns herself with delight, and Her attendants accompany Her, and in hushed silence She encounters her Spouse; and Her handmaids proclaim, "Blessed be the Name of the Glory of His Kingdom for ever and ever." These words are said in a whisper, for so she must be introduced to her Spouse. Blessed is the people which perceives these things, ordering its prayers in accordance with this mystery of the Faith! At the time when the Spouse is united with the Matrona a herald comes forth from the south, crying: "Awaken, O ye supernal hosts, and unfurl the banners of love in honour of your Lord!" Then one of the leaders of the celestial array-he whose name is Boel (God is in him)- stands forth, and in his hands are four keys which he obtained one from each of the four corners of the earth. One key has upon it the sign of the letter Yod engraved; the second the letter He’; and the third the letter Vau; and these three keys he lays beneath the boughs of the Tree of Life. Then these three become one. Then the fourth and last key, which bears upon it the second letter He’, joins the three which have become one. And all the angelic hosts enter by means of those keys into the Garden of Eden, where with one voice they proclaim the Divine unity at the selfsame moment as it is proclaimed here below. Then the Shekinah, the Bride, is conducted to the Palace of the King, Her Bridegroom, for now He stands complete in all His supernal goodness and can supply Her with all that She needs. Thus her attendants bring Her in unto Him in silence. Why in silence? In order that no "stranger" (evil potencies) should participate in her joy. As He united Himself above according to six aspects, so also She unites Herself below according to six other aspects, so that the oneness may be completed, both above and below, as it is written: "The Lord will be One, and his Name One" (Zech. XIV, 9): Six words above-Shema Israel YHVH Elohenu YHVH ehad, corresponding to the six aspects, and six words below-baruk shem kebod malkuto le'olam waed (Blessed be the Name, etc.)-corresponding to the six other aspects. The Lord is one above; and His Name is One below. We say this reponse silently, although it is a triumphant expression of the Oneness, because of the "evil eye", which still has power under the present dispensation; but in the future (Messianic Age) when the "evil eye" will have ceased to exist and will have no dominion whatsoever over this world, then we shall proclaim the Divine Unity and its full accomplishment openly and in a loud voice. At present, as the "other side" still cleaves to the Shekinah, She is not entirely One, and therefore, although even in this present time we proclaim the unity, we do so silently, symbolizing it by the letters of the word wa'ed (ever), which are equivalent by certain permutations to those of the word ehad (one). But in the time that is to be, when that other side shall be removed from the Shekinah and pass away from the world, then shall that unity be proclaimed openly. When She enters the canopy and is united with the Supernal King, then we awaken the joy of the Right and of the Left, as it is written: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart", etc. -that is, without any fear or foreboding, because the "other side" comes not near and has no power here. But whilst Her servants are bringing Her to the King they must keep a great and solemn silence.


We again turn to the subject of Gemmatria (the study of the numerical values of the letters and words of the Torah), as mentioned earlier in comments to Revelation 6:9.

As has been discussed in our previous studies, the union between the letter Vav (the "Son" which is attached to the letter Yod ["Father"] and letter Hey ["Mother"]) and the bride (Shekinah/Malkut, the final Hey of YHVH), results in the coming of the Kingdom and the heavenly (third) Temple being established on earth.

This theme of unification between the Vav and the Hey is central to Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto's, classic work on the third Temple, Mishkney Elyon. Luzzatto specifically associates the union of the Vav with the He' (its mate, the Shekinah) with the Eastern Gate of the third Temple, from which flow all blessings of the heavenly Holy of Holies. Note how Luzzatto places great significance on the union of the numbers 6 and 7, which are the dimensions of the Eastern Gate:

As the great and powerful letter Vav asserted itself (for it was from the Vav that the light [of the heavenly Holy of Holies] emerged, its force was so great that it broke through the wall and made there a gate as high as the measure of the vav (=6): six cubits. And since the Vav was joined with its mate (6+1=7), the width of the gate was seven cubits. 2

The relationship between the numbers 6 and 7 (as they correspond to the dimensions of the Eastern Gate), are explained in the overview to Mishkney Elyon, by Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, who  illustrates the mathematics of the Temple in Luzzatto's work:

... interactions between the Divine Names of the Partzufim ["qualities" of the Sefirot], all of which are also numbers, "create" the "space" of the Holy Temple. Consider an exampe of how numbers create space: A room that is forty feet in length, twenty feet wide and twenty feet high is "created" by walls of appropriate length and height. In the language of Mishkney Elyon, the floor space of such a room is created through the "joining" (Chibur) of forty and twenty. Chibur is the Hebrew word for the mathematical relationship expressed by x, the multiplication sign.

... As Ramchal (an acronymn for RAbbi Moshe CHAim Luzzatto) proceeds with his "tour" of the various areas of the Temple, he shows how each individual Hall, Chamber, Wall, Gate and Courtyard "appears" as a result of the "joining together" of some or all of the letters of various Divine Names. These names correspond to the Sefirot and Partzufim, which are the Middot, "qualities" or "measures." Chibur, "joining" and "multiplication" of the "measures," brings into being three dimensional "spaces" where the axes of "length," "breadth" and "height" are the three "lines" or "columns" of Chesed (Kindness), Din (Judgment) and Rachamim (Mercy and Balance). 3

What is significant in the relationship between the numbers 6 and 7 as associated with the Eastern Gate, is when we apply the chibur (joining/multiplication) of these numbers, we get "42," which as has been discussed in previous studies, is associated with "the forty-two letter Name of God."

The number 42 and the forty-two letter Name are usually associated with the idea of an connection being made between the spiritual and physical realms. This can even be an unholy connection as seen by Balaam offering forty-two sacrifices against Israel.

1. The fact of this "pause" appearing between the sixth and seventh judgments in all three series of judgments, with an indication of "completeness" following each time, would give cause to believe that all three sets of judgments are simultaneous/overlapping. However, as the seven trumpet judgments seem to come "out of" the seventh seal, and the seven bowl judgments come "out of" the seventh trumpet, this would seem to indicate that they are not concurrent. As much as anything else, this shows us how our view of time and space from our physical world is different than that which exists in the higher worlds.

2. Secrets of the Future Temple (Mishkney Elyon), Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, translated by Avraham Greenbaum, Temple Institute and Azamra Institute, Jerusalem, 1999, pp. 74.

3. ibid, pp. 41,42.